Advertisement

Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/Technology

, Volume 18, Issue 3, pp 413–435 | Cite as

Use of wastes for sophorolipids production as a transition to circular economy: state of the art and perspectives

  • Pedro Jiménez-Peñalver
  • Alejandra Rodríguez
  • Achlesh Daverey
  • Xavier FontEmail author
  • Teresa Gea
Mini Review

Abstract

Chemical processes and petroleum-based chemicals are being substituted by biological processes and bioproducts. Surfactants and biosurfactants are an example of this trend. Among the biosurfactants, sophorolipids (SLs) have excellent surface and interfacial tension properties, which make them ideal to be used in a wide variety of applications. SLs are produced at full scale through submerged fermentation of pure substrates (glucose and oleic acid). However, research trends suggest that there is a lot of interest to produce SLs from waste effluents and other low-cost substrates, both in submerged and solid-state fermentation processes. This study reviews the current research in the production of SLs via fermentation processes, focusing on those using wastes, by-products, or low-cost substrates (liquids or solids). It details the substrates, process variables, microorganisms, and use of supplementary media for batch, fed-batch, and continuous submerged or solid-state fermentation processes. Sophorolipids production based on industrial by-products and waste effluents presents huge potential for its application at an industrial scale in a more economical and environmentally friendly process, boosting the necessary change to circular economy.

Keywords

Biosurfactants Submerged fermentation Solid-state fermentation Wastes Low-cost substrates Review 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thank the Spanish Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (Project CTM2015-69513-R) for their financial support.

References

  1. Accorsini FR, Rossini Mutton MJ, Macedo Lemos EG, Benincasa M (2012) Biosurfactants production by yeasts using soybean oil and glycerol as low cost substrate. Braz J Microbiol 43:116–125Google Scholar
  2. Andrade Silva NR, Luna MA, Santiago AL, Franco LO, Silva GK, de Souza PM, Okada K, Albuquerque CD, da Silva CA, Campos-Takaki GM (2014) Biosurfactant-and-bioemulsifier produced by a promising Cunninghamella echinulata isolated from Caatinga soil in the northeast of Brazil. Int J Mol Sci 15:15377–15395Google Scholar
  3. Ashby RD, Solaiman DKY (2010) The influence of increasing media methanol concentration on sophorolipid biosynthesis from glycerol-based feedstocks. Biotechnol Lett 32:1429–1437Google Scholar
  4. Ashby RD, Nuñez A, Solaiman DKY, Foglia TA (2005) Sophorolipid biosynthesis from a biodiesel co-product stream. J Am Oil Chem Soc 82:625–630Google Scholar
  5. Ashby RD, Solaiman DKY, Foglia TA (2006) The use of fatty acid esters to enhance free acid sophorolipid synthesis. Biotechnol Lett 28:253–260Google Scholar
  6. Ashby RD, Solaiman DKY, Foglia TA (2008) Property control of sophorolipids: influence of fatty acid substrate and blending. Biotechnol Lett 30:1093–1100Google Scholar
  7. Ashby RD, McAloon AJ, Solaiman DKY, Yee WC, Reed M (2013) A process model for approximating the production costs of the fermentative synthesis of sophorolipids. J Surfactant Deterg 16:683–691Google Scholar
  8. Baccile N, Babonneau F, Banat I, Ciesielska K, Cuvier A-S, Devreese B, Everaert B, Lydon H, Marchant R, Mitchell CA, Roelants S, Six L, Theeuwes E, Tsatsos G, Tsotsou GE, Vanlerberghe B, Van Bogaert INA, Soetaert W (2016) Development of a cradle-to-grave approach for acetylated acidic sophorolipid biosurfactants. ACS Sustain Chem Eng 5:1186–1198Google Scholar
  9. Banat IM, Rengathavasi T (2018) Microbial biosurfactants and their environmental and industrial applications. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  10. Banat IM, Satpute SK, Cameotra SS, Patil R, Nyayanit NV (2014) Cost effective technologies and renewable substrates for biosurfactants’ production. Front Microbiol 5:697Google Scholar
  11. Cerda A, Gea T, Vargas-García MC, Sánchez A (2017) Towards a competitive solid state fermentation: cellulases production from coffee husk by sequential batch operation and role of microbial diversity. Sci Total Environ 589:56–65Google Scholar
  12. Cerda A, Mejias L, Rodríguez P, Rodríguez A, Artola A, Font X, Gea T, Sánchez A (2019) Valorisation of digestate from biowaste through solid-state fermentation to obtain value added bioproducts: a first approach. Bioresour Technol 271:409–416Google Scholar
  13. Chen J, Song X, Zhang H, Qu Y (2006) Production, structure elucidation and anticancer properties of sophorolipid from Wickerhamiella domercqiae. Enzyme Microb Technol 39:501–506Google Scholar
  14. Chen Y, Lin Y, Tian X, Li Q, Chu J (2019) Real-time dynamic analysis with low-field nuclear magnetic resonance of residual oil and sophorolipids concentrations in the fermentation process of Starmerella bombicola. J Microbiol Methods 157:9–15Google Scholar
  15. Claus S, Van Bogaert INA (2017) Sophorolipid production by yeasts: a critical review of the literature and suggestions for future research. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 101:7811–7821Google Scholar
  16. Daniel H, Reuss M, Syldatk C (1998) Production of sophorolipids in high concentration from deproteinized whey and rapeseed oil in a two stage fed batch process using Candida bombicola ATCC 22214 and Cryptococcus curvatus ATCC 20509. Biotechnol Lett 20:1153–1156Google Scholar
  17. Daverey A, Pakshirajan K (2009) Production of sophorolipids by the yeast Candida bombicola using simple and low cost fermentative media. Food Res Int 42:499–504Google Scholar
  18. Daverey A, Pakshirajan K (2010) Sophorolipids from Candida bombicola using mixed hydrophilic substrates: production, purification and characterization. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 79:246–253Google Scholar
  19. Daverey A, Pakshirajan K (2011) Sophorolipids production by Candida bombicola using dairy industry wastewater. Clean Technol Envir 13:481–488Google Scholar
  20. Daverey A, Pakshirajan K (2015) Treatment of dairy wastewater containing high amount of fats and oils using a yeast-bioreactor system under batch, fed-batch and continuous operation. Desal Water Treat 57:1–7Google Scholar
  21. Davila AM, Marchal R, Vandecasteele JP (1997) Sophorose lipid fermentation with differentiated substrated supply for growth and production phases. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 47:496–501Google Scholar
  22. Deshpande M, Daniels L (1995) Evaluation of sophorolipid biosurfactant production by Candida bombicola using animal fat. Bioresour Technol 54:143–150Google Scholar
  23. Díaz de Rienzo MA, Banat IM, Dolman B, Winterburn J, Martin PJ (2015) Sophorolipid biosurfactants: possible uses as antibacterial and antibiofilm agent. N Biotechnol 32:720–726Google Scholar
  24. Dolman BM, Kaisermann C, Martin PJ, Winterburn JB (2017) Integrated sophorolipid production and gravity separation. Process Biochem 54:162–171Google Scholar
  25. Edser C (2018) Sizing up surfactants market. Focus Surf 2018(1):1–2Google Scholar
  26. Elshafie AE, Joshi SJ, Al-Wahaibi YM, Al-Bemani AS, Al-Bahry SN, Al-Maqbali D, Banat IM (2015) Sophorolipids production by Candida bombicola ATCC 22214 and its potential application in microbial enhanced oil recovery. Front Microbiol 6:Article 1324 1–11Google Scholar
  27. Faria NT, Marques S, Fonseca C, Ferreira FC (2015) Direct xylan conversion into glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids, by Pseudozyma antarctica PYCC 5048T. Enzyme Microb Technol 71:58–65Google Scholar
  28. Felse PA, Shah V, Chan J, Rao KJ, Gross R (2007) Sophorolipid biosynthesis by Candida bombicola from industrial fatty acid residues. Enzyme Microb Technol 40:316–323Google Scholar
  29. Fleurackers SJJ (2006) On the use of waste frying oil in the synthesis of sophorolipids. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 108:5–12Google Scholar
  30. Gautam P (2002) Microbial production of extra-cellular phytase using polystyrene as inert solid support. Bioresour Technol 83:229–233Google Scholar
  31. Göbbert U, Lang S, Wagner F (1984) Sophorose lipid formation by resting cells of Torulopsis bombicola. Biotechnol Lett 6(4):225–230Google Scholar
  32. Guilmanov V, Ballistreri A, Impallomeni G, Gross RA (2002) Oxygen transfer rate and sophorose lipid production by Candida bombicola. Biotechnol Bioeng 77(5):489–494Google Scholar
  33. Haba E, Pinazo A, Pons R, Pérez L, Manresa A (2014) Complex rhamnolipid mixture characterization and its influence on DPPC bilayer organization. Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr 1838:776–783Google Scholar
  34. Hernández-Rodríguez B, Córdova J, Bárzana E, Favela-Torres E (2009) Effects of organic solvents on activity and stability of lipases produced by thermotolerant fungi in solid-state fermentation. J Mol Catal B Enzym 61:136–142Google Scholar
  35. Hommel RK, Stegner S, Kleber HP, Weber L (1994a) Effect of ammonium ions on glycolipid production by Candida (Torulopsis) apicola. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 42:192–197Google Scholar
  36. Hommel RK, Weber L, Weiss A, Himmelreich U, Rilke O, Kleber HP (1994b) Production of sophorose lipid by Candida (Torulopsis) apicola grown on glucose. J Biotechnol 33:147–155Google Scholar
  37. Hu Y, Ju L-K (2001) Sophorolipid production from different lipid precursors observed with LC–MS. Enzyme Microb Technol 29:593–601Google Scholar
  38. Jadhav JV, Pratap AP, Kale SB (2019) Evaluation of sun flower oil refinery waste as feedstock for production of sophorolipid. Process Biochem 78:15–24Google Scholar
  39. Jiménez-Peñalver P (2017) Sophorolipids by solid-state fermentation: from lab-scale to pilot scale (Ph.D. Thesis) Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, SpainGoogle Scholar
  40. Jiménez-Peñalver P, Gea T, Sánchez A, Font X (2016) Production of sophorolipids from winterization oil cake by solid-state fermentation: optimization, monitoring and mixing effect. Biochem Eng J 115:93–100Google Scholar
  41. Jiménez-Peñalver P, Castillejos M, Koh A, Gross R, Sánchez A, Font X, Gea T (2018) Production and characterization of sophorolipids from stearic acid by solid-state fermentation, a cleaner alternative to chemical surfactants. J Clean Prod 172:2735–2747Google Scholar
  42. Joshi-Navare K, Khanvilkar P, Prabhune A (2013) Jatropha oil derived sophorolipids: production and characterization as laundry detergent additive. Biochem Res Int 3:133–143Google Scholar
  43. Kaur G, Wang H, To MH, Roelants SLKW, Soetaert W, Lin CSL (2019) Efficient sophorolipids production using food waste. J Clean Prod 232:1–11Google Scholar
  44. Kim YB, Yun HS, Kim EK (2009) Enhanced sophorolipid production by feeding-rate-controlled fed-batch culture. Bioresour Technol 100:6028–6032Google Scholar
  45. Klekner V, Kosaric N, Zhou QH (1991) Sophorose lipids produced from sucrose. Biotechnol Lett 13:345–348Google Scholar
  46. Knepper TP, de Voogt P, Barcelo D (2003) Analysis and fate of surfactants in the aquatic environment. Wilson & Wilson’s Comprehensive Analytical Chemistry, vol 40. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  47. Koh A, Gross R (2016) A versatile family of sophorolipid esters: engineering surfactant structure for stabilization of lemon oil–water interfaces. Colloids Surf A Physicochem Eng Asp 507:152–163Google Scholar
  48. Konishi M, Yoshida Y, Horiuchi J (2015) Efficient production of sophorolipids by Starmerella bombicola using a corncob hydrolysate medium. J Biosci Bioeng 119:317–322Google Scholar
  49. Konishi M, Morita T, Fukuoka T, Imura T, Uemura S, Iwabuchi H, Kitamoto D (2018) Efficient production of acid-form sophorolipids from waste glycerol and fatty acid methyl esters by Candida floricola. J Oleo Sci 67(4):489–496Google Scholar
  50. Kopsahelis A, Kourmentza C, Zafiric C, Kornaros M (2018) Gate-to-gate life cycle assessment of biosurfactants and bioplasticizers production via biotechnological exploitation of fats and waste oils. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 93:2833–2841Google Scholar
  51. Krieger N, Neto DC, Mitchell DA (2010) Production of microbial biosurfactants by solid-state cultivation. In: Ramkrishma S (ed) Biosurfactants. Springer, New York, pp 203–210Google Scholar
  52. Kurtzman CP, Price NPJ, Ray KJ, Kuo T-M (2010) Production of sophorolipid biosurfactants by multiple species of the Starmerella (Candida) bombicola yeast clade. FEMS Microbiol Lett 311(2):140–146Google Scholar
  53. Li J, Li H, Liang S, Song D (2018) Characterization of sophorolipids from the yeast Starmerella bombicola O-13-1 using waste fried oil and cane molasses as substrates. Desalin Water Treat 119:267–275Google Scholar
  54. Liu XG, Ma XJ, Yao RS, Pan CY, He HB (2016) Sophorolipids production from rice straw via SO3 micro-thermal explosion by Wickerhamiella domercqiae var. sophorolipid CGMCC 1576. AMB Express 6(1):60Google Scholar
  55. Liu X, Ma X, He H, Yao R (2017) Advances in sophorolipids production with low-cost substrates. Chin J Bioprocess Eng 15(03):59–68Google Scholar
  56. Liu Z, Tian X, Chen Y, Lin Y, Mohsin A, Chu J (2019) Efficient sophorolipids production via a novel in situ separation technology by Starmerella bombicola. Process Biochem 81:1–10Google Scholar
  57. Lonsane BK, Saucedo-Castaneda G, Raimbault M, Roussos S, Viniegra-Gonzalez G, Ghildyal NP, Krishnaiah MM (1992) Scale-up strategies for solid state fermentation systems. Process Biochem 27(5):259–273Google Scholar
  58. Maddikeri GL, Gogate PR, Pandit AB (2015) Improved synthesis of sophorolipids from waste cooking oil using fed batch approach in the presence of ultrasound. Chem Eng J 263:479–487Google Scholar
  59. Maeng Y, Kim KT, Zhou X, Jin L, Kim KS, Kim YH, Park JH, Chen X, Kong M, Cai L, Li X (2018) A novel microbial technique for producing high-quality sophorolipids from horse oil suitable for cosmetic applications. Microb Biotechnol 11(5):917–929Google Scholar
  60. Mann RM, Bidwell JR (2001) The acute toxicity of agricultural surfactants to the tadpoles of four Australian and two exotic frogs. Environ Pollut 114:195–205Google Scholar
  61. Martin del Campo M, Camacho RM, Mateos-Díaz JC, Müller-Santos M, Córdova J, Rodríguez JA (2015) Solid-state fermentation as a potential technique for esterase/lipase production by Halophilic archaea. Extremophiles 19:1121–1132Google Scholar
  62. Martins S, Mussatto SI, Martínez-Avila G, Montañez-Saenz J, Aguilar CN, Teixeira JA (2011) Bioactive phenolic compounds: production and extraction by solid-state fermentation. A review. Biotechnol Adv 29:365–373Google Scholar
  63. Mata-Gómez M, Mussatto SI, Rodríguez R, Teixeira JA, Martinez JL, Hernandez A, Aguilar CN (2015) Gallic acid production with mouldy polyurethane particles obtained from solid state culture of Aspergillus niger GH1. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 176:1131–1140Google Scholar
  64. Mitchell DA, Berovič M, Krieger N (2006) Solid-state fermentation bioreactors: fundamentals of design and operation. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  65. Morita T, Konishi M, Fukuoka T, Imura T, Kitamoto D (2007) Microbial conversion of glycerol into glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids, by a basidiomycete yeast, Pseudozyma antarctica JCM 10317T. J Biosci Bioeng 104:78–81Google Scholar
  66. Mukherjee S, Das P, Sen R (2006) Towards commercial production of microbial surfactants. Trends Biotechnol 24:509–515Google Scholar
  67. Mussatto SI (2017) Challenges in building a sustainable biobased economy. Ind Crops Prod 106:1–2Google Scholar
  68. Nalini S, Parthasarathi R (2014) Production and characterization of rhamnolipids produced by Serratia rubidaea SNAU02 under solid-state fermentation and its application as biocontrol agent. Bioresour Technol 173:231–238Google Scholar
  69. Nooman MU, Mahmoud MH, Al-Kashef AS, Rashad MM (2017) Hypocholesterolemic impact of newly isolated sophorolipids produced by microbial conversion of safflower oil cake in rats fed high-fat and cholesterol diet. Grasas Aceites 68(3):212–225Google Scholar
  70. Ooijkaas LP, Weber FJ, Buitelaar RM, Tramper J, Rinzema A (2000) Defined media and inert supports: their potential as solid-state fermentation production systems. Trends Biotechnol 18:356–360Google Scholar
  71. Palme O, Comanescu G, Stoineva I, Radel S, Benes E, Develter D, Lang S (2010) Sophorolipids from Candida bombicola: cell separation by ultrasonic particle manipulation. Eur J Lipid Sci Tech 112:663–673Google Scholar
  72. Parekh VJ, Pandit AB (2012) Solid state fermentation (SSF) for the production of sophorolipids from Starmerella bombicola NRRL Y-17069 using glucose, wheat bran and oleic acid. Curr Trends Biotechnol Pharm 6:418–424Google Scholar
  73. Parekh VJ, Patravale VB, Pandit AB (2012) Mango kernel fat: a novel lipid source for the fermentative production of sophorolipid biosurfactant using Starmerella bombicola NRRL -Y 17069. Ann Biol Res 3:1798–1803Google Scholar
  74. Pekin G, Vardar-Sukan F, Kosaric N (2005) Production of sophorolipids from Candida bombicola ATCC 22214 using Turkish corn oil and honey. Eng Life Sci 5:357–361Google Scholar
  75. Pessôa MG, Vespermann KAC, Paulino BN, Barcelos MCS (2019) Newly isolated microorganisms with potential application in biotechnology. Biotechnol Adv 37:319–339Google Scholar
  76. Poomtien J, Thaniyavarn J, Pinphanichakarn P, Jindamorakot S, Morikawa M (2013) Production and Characterization of a Biosurfactant from Cyberlindnera samutprakarnensis JP52T. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 77:2362–2370Google Scholar
  77. Pornsunthorntawee O, Arttaweeporn N, Paisanjit S, Somboonthanate P, Abe M, Rujiravanit R, Chavadej S (2008) Isolation and comparison of biosurfactants produced by Bacillus subtilis PT2 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa SP4 for microbial surfactant-enhanced oil recovery. Biochem Eng J 42:172–179Google Scholar
  78. Procter and Gamble (2017) Working toward zero. Link https://us.pg.com/sustainability/environmental-sustainability/focused-on/waste. Last time consulted: 26/09/17
  79. Qi X, Xu X, Zhong C, Jiang T, Wei W, Song X (2018) Removal of cadmium and lead from contaminated soils using sophorolipids from fermentation culture of Starmerella bombicola CGMCC 1576 fermentation. Int J Environ Res Public Health 15(11):2334Google Scholar
  80. Radzuan MN, Banat IM, Winterburn J (2017) Production and characterization of rhamnolipid using palm oil agricultural refinery waste. Bioresour Technol 225:99–105Google Scholar
  81. Randhawa KKS, Rahman PKSM (2014) Rhamnolipid biosurfactants-past, present, and future scenario of global market. Front Microbiol 5:1–7Google Scholar
  82. Rashad MM, Nooman MU, Ali MM, Mahmoud AE (2014) Production, characterization and anticancer activity of Candida bombicola sophorolipids by means of solid-state fermentation of sunflower oil cake and soybean oil. Grasas Aceites 65(2):e017Google Scholar
  83. Rau U, Hammen S, Heckmann R, Wray V, Lang S (2001) Sophorolipids: a source for novel compounds. Ind Crop Prod 13:85–92Google Scholar
  84. Raza ZA, Khan MS, Khalid ZM (2007a) Physicochemical and surface-active properties of biosurfactant produced using molasses by a Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutant. J Environ Sci Health A Toxic Hazard Subst Environ Eng 42:73–80Google Scholar
  85. Raza ZA, Rehman A, Khan MS, Khalid ZM (2007b) Improved production of biosurfactant by a Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutant using vegetable oil refinery wastes. Biodegradation 18:115–121Google Scholar
  86. Razak NNA, Abdullah N, Biak DRA, Yatim ARM (2015) Solvent-less approach for the recovery of palm-based sophorolipids biosurfactant via salting-out method. J Oil Palm Res 27:81–189Google Scholar
  87. Rikalović MG, Gojgić-Cvijović G, Vrvić MM, Karadžić I (2012) Production and characterization of rhamnolipids from Pseudomonas aeruginosa san-ai. J Serb Chem Soc 77(1):27–42Google Scholar
  88. Rispoli FJ, Badia D, Shah V (2010) Optimization of the fermentation media for sophorolipid production from Candida bombicola ATCC 22214 using a simplex centroid design. Biotechnol Prog 4:938–944Google Scholar
  89. Ron EZ, Rosenberg E (2001) Natural roles of biosurfactants: minireview. Environ Microbiol 3(4):229–236Google Scholar
  90. Salim AA, Grbavčić S, Šekuljica N, Vukašinović-Sekulić M, Jovanović J, Jakovetić Tanasković S, Luković N, Knežević-Jugović Z (2019) Enzyme production by solid-state fermentation on soybean meal: a comparative study of conventional and ultrasound-assisted extraction methods. Biotechnol Appl Biochem 66(3):361–368Google Scholar
  91. Sathi Reddy K, Yahya Khan M, Archana K, Gopal Reddy M, Hameeda B (2016) Utilization of mango kernel oil for the rhamnolipid production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa DR1 towards its application as biocontrol agent. Bioresour Technol 221:291–299Google Scholar
  92. Shah V, Doncel GF, Seyoum T, Eaton KM, Zalenskaya I, Hagver R, Azim A, Gross R (2005) Sophorolipids, microbial glycolipids with anti-human immunodeficiency virus and sperm-immobilizing activities. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49:4093–4100Google Scholar
  93. Shah V, Jurjevic M, Badia D (2007) Utilization of restaurant waste oil as a precursor for sophorolipid production. Biotechnol Prog 23:512–515Google Scholar
  94. Singh A, Van Hamme JD, Ward OP (2007) Surfactants in microbiology and biotechnology: part 2: application aspects. Biotechnol Adv 25:99–121Google Scholar
  95. Slivinski CT, Mallmann E, de Araújo JM, Mitchell DA, Krieger N (2012) Production of surfactin by Bacillus pumilus UFPEDA 448 in solid-state fermentation using a medium based on okara with sugarcane bagasse as a bulking agent. Process Biochem 47:1848–1855Google Scholar
  96. Soares da Silva RCF, de Almeida DG, Brasileiro PPF, Rufino RD, de Luna JM, Sarubbo LA (2018) Production, formulation and cost estimation of a commercial biosurfactant. Biodegradation.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10532-018-9830-4 Google Scholar
  97. Soares A, Guieysse B, Jefferson B, Cartmell E, Lester JN (2008) Nonylphenol in the environment: a critical review on occurrence, fate, toxicity and treatment in wastewaters. Environ Int 34:1033–1049Google Scholar
  98. Soberón-Chávez G (2011) Biosurfactants: From genes to application. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  99. Solaiman DKY, Ashby RD, Nuñez A, Foglia TA (2004) Production of sophorolipids by Candida bombicola grown on soy molasses. Biotechnol Lett 26:1241–1245Google Scholar
  100. Spencer JF, Gorin PA, Tulloch AP (1970) Torulopsis bombicola sp. n. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 36:129–133Google Scholar
  101. Union European (2003) Directive 2003/53/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 June 2003. Off J Eur Union 178:24–27Google Scholar
  102. Van Bogaert INA, Soetaert W (2011) Sophorolipids. In: Soberón-Chávez G (ed) Biosurfactants, microbiol monogr. Springer, Berlin, pp 179–210Google Scholar
  103. Van Bogaert INA, Saerens K, De Muynck C, Develter D, Soetaert W, Vandamme EJ (2007) Microbial production and application of sophorolipids. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 76:23–34Google Scholar
  104. Van Bogaert INA, Develter D, Soetaert W, Vandamme EJ (2008) Cerulenin inhibits de novo sophorolipid synthesis of Candida bombicola. Biotechnol Lett 30:1829–1832Google Scholar
  105. Van Bogaert INA, Zhang J, Soetaert W (2011) Microbial synthesis of sophorolipids. Process Biochem 46:821–833Google Scholar
  106. Van Hamme JD, Singh A, Ward OP (2006) Physiological aspects. Part 1 in a series of papers devoted to surfactants in microbiology and biotechnology. Biotechnol Adv 24:604–620Google Scholar
  107. Van Renterghem L, Roelants SL, Baccile N, Uyttersprot K, Taelman MC, Everaert B, Stevens C (2018) From lab to market: an integrated bioprocess design approach for new-to-nature biosurfactants produced by Starmerella bombicola. Biotechnol Bioeng 115(5):1195–1206Google Scholar
  108. Velioglu Z, Ozturk Urek R (2015) Optimization of cultural conditions for biosurfactant production by Pleurotus djamor in solid state fermentation. J Biosci Bioeng 120:526–531Google Scholar
  109. Wadekar SD, Kale SB, Arvind L, Diptinarayan B, Pratap AP (2012a) Sophorolipid production by Starmerella bombicola (ATCC 22214) from virgin and waste frying oils, and the effects of activated earth treatment of the waste oils. J Am Oil Chem Soc 89:1029–1039Google Scholar
  110. Wadekar SD, Kale SB, Lali AM, Bhowmick DN, Pratap AP (2012b) Jatropha oil and karanja oil as carbon sources for production of sophorolipids. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 114:823–832Google Scholar
  111. Wang H, Roelants LKW, To MH, Patria RD, Kaur G, Lau NS, Lau CY, Van Bogaert INA, Van Soetaert W, Sk C (2018) Starmerella bombicola: recent advances on sophorolipid production and prospects of waste stream utilization. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 94:999–1007Google Scholar
  112. Winterburn JB, Martin PJ (2012) Foam mitigation and exploitation in biosurfactant production. Biotechnol Lett 34:187–195Google Scholar
  113. Yang X, Zhu L, Xue C, Che Y, Qu L, Lu W (2012) Recovery of purified lactonic sophorolipids by spontaneous crystallization during the fermentation of sugarcane molasses with Candida albicans O-13-1. Enzyme Microb Technol 51:348–353Google Scholar
  114. Zhang Y, Jia D, Sun W, Yang X, Zhang C, Zhao F, Lu W (2018) Semicontinuous sophorolipid fermentation using a novel bioreactor with dual ventilation pipes and dual sieve-plates coupled with a novel separation system. Microb Biotechnol 11(3):455–464Google Scholar
  115. Zhi Y, Wu Q, Xu Y (2017) Production of surfactin from waste distillers’ grains by co-culture fermentation of two Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strains. Bioresour Technol 235:96–103Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Composting Research Group, Department of Chemical, Biological and Environmental Engineering, Escola d’EnginyeriaUniversitat Autònoma de BarcelonaCerdanyola del VallèsSpain
  2. 2.School of Environment and Natural ResourcesDoon UniversityDehradunIndia

Personalised recommendations