Advertisement

Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/Technology

, Volume 15, Issue 3, pp 411–439 | Cite as

A critical review of membrane crystallization for the purification of water and recovery of minerals

  • Biplob Kumar Pramanik
  • Kandasamy Thangavadivel
  • Li Shu
  • Veeriah JegatheesanEmail author
review paper

Abstract

Membrane crystallization is an innovative concept to treat water and recover minerals from concentrates. Thus, it will also be beneficial to the existing mineral extraction industry. This process combines membrane distillation (MD) with crystallization. While MD produces water and concentrates the feed, crystalliser forms crystals from supersaturated minerals in the concentrated feed. This review covers principles of this process, factors affecting membrane crystallization for water treatment, application of membrane crystallization, resource recovery and the fouling of membrane crystallization. Membrane crystallization could recover many minerals including sodium, magnesium, barium, strontium, and lithium. However, fouling is a major challenge for its widespread implementation. Further directions for future research and development of this process are also considered with a view to the sustainable operation of the process.

Keywords

Membrane crystallization Membrane distillation Minerals recovery Water purification Fouling 

References

  1. Abu-Zeid MAER, Zhang Y, Dong H, Zhang L, Chen HL, Hou L (2015) A comprehensive review of vacuum membrane distillation technique. Desalination 356:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ali MAB, Rakib M, Laborie S, Viers P, Durand G (2004) Coupling of bipolar membrane electrodialysis and ammonia stripping for direct treatment of wastewaters containing ammonium nitrate. J Membr Sci 244:89–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ali A, Quist-Jensen CA, Macedonio F, Drioli E (2015) Application of membrane crystallization for minerals recovery from produced water. Membranes 5:772–792CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alkhudhiri A, Darwish N, Hilal N (2012) Membrane distillation: a comprehensive review. Desalination 287:2–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alkhudhiri A, Darwish N, Hilal N (2013) Produced water treatment: application of air gap membrane distillation. Desalination 309:46–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Alklaibi AM, Lior N (2005) Transport analysis of air-gap membrane distillation. J Membr Sci 255:239–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Alobaidani S, Curcio E, Macedonio F, Diprofio G, Alhinai H, Drioli E (2008) Potential of membrane distillation in seawater desalination: thermal efficiency, sensitivity study and cost estimation. J Membr Sci 323:85–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Banat FA, Simandl J (1994) Theoretical and experimental study in membrane distillation. Desalination 95:39–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Banat FA, Simandl J (1998) Desalination by membrane distillation: a parametric study. Sep Sci Technol 33:201–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Banat FA, Simandl J (1999) Membrane distillation for dilute ethanol: separation from aqueous streams. J Membr Sci 163:333–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Banat F, Abu Al-Rub F, Bani-Melhem K (2003) Desalination by vacuum membrane distillation: Sensitivity analysis. Sep Purif Technol 33:75–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bhattacharya M, Dutta SK, Sikder J, Mandal MK (2014) Computational and experimental study of chromium (VI) removal in direct contact membrane distillation. J Membr Sci 450:447–456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bonmatí A, Flotats X (2003) Air stripping of ammonia from pig slurry: characterisation and feasibility as a pre- or post-treatment to mesophilic anaerobic digestion. Waste Manag 23:261–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Burgoyne A, Vahdati M (2000) Direct contact membrane distillation. Sep Sci Technol 35:1257–1284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cabassud C, Wirth D (2003) Membrane distillation for water desalination: how to choose an appropriate membrane? Desalination 157:307–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Calabro V, Drioli E, Matera F (1991) Membrane distillation in the textile wastewater treatment. Desalination 83:209–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chen Y, Kim H (2008) Poly(vinylidene fluoride) grafted with 3-trimethoxysilylpropyl methacrylate for silyl functional membranes. React Funct Polym 68:1499–1506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chen Y, Kim H (2009) Preparation of superhydrophobic membranes by electrospinning of fluorinated silane functionalized poly(vinylidene fluoride). Appl Surf Sci 255:7073–7077CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Chen TC, Ho CD, Yeh HM (2009) Theoretical modeling and experimental analysis of direct contact membrane distillation. J Membr Sci 330:279–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cidu R, Frau F (2009) Effects of past mining on the quality og water resources in Sardinia. In: International mine water conference, 19th–23rd October, Pretoria, South AfricaGoogle Scholar
  21. Criscuoli A, Drioli E (1999) Energetic and exergetic analysis of an integrated membrane desalination system. Desalination 124:243–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Criscuoli A, Carnevale MC, Drioli E (2008) Evaluation of energy requirements in membrane distillation. Chem Eng Process 47:1098–1105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Criscuoli A, Bafaro P, Drioli E (2013) Vacuum membrane distillation for purifying waters containing arsenic. Desalination 323:17–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Curcio E, Criscuoli A, Drioli E (2001) Membrane crystallizers. Ind Eng Chem Res 40:2679–2684CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Drioli E, Curico E, Criscuoli A, Di Profio G (2004) Integrated system for recovery of CaCO3, NaCl and MgSO4·7H2O from nanofiltration retentate. J Membr Sci 239:27–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. El-Abbassi A, Hafifi A, García-Payo MA, Khayet M (2009) Concentration of olive mill wastewater by membrane distillation for polyphenols recovery. Desalination 245:670–674CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. El-Bourawi MS, Ding Z, Ma R, Khayet M (2006) A frame work for better understanding membrane distillation separation process. J Membr Sci 285:4–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. El-Bourawi MS, Khayet M, Ma R, Ding Z, Li Z, Zhang X (2007) Application of vacuum membrane distillation for ammonia removal. J Membr Sci 301:200–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ettouney HM, El-Dessouky HT, Faibish RS, Gowin P (2002) Evaluating the economics of desalination. Chem Eng Prog 98:32–40Google Scholar
  30. Fahlqvist L, Sartz L, Backstrom M (2012) Removal of zinc and lead from a neutral mine water using iron taillings and iron oxyhydroxide coated iron tailings. In: International mine water association conference, pp 584A–584GGoogle Scholar
  31. Franken ACM, Nolten JAM, Mulder MHV, Bargeman D, Smolders CA (1987) Wetting criteria for the applicability of membrane distillation. J Membr Sci 33:315–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Frostick A, Jones D, Turner K (2012) Review of solute selection for water quality and bioaccumulation monitoring at a northern Australian uranium mine. In: International mine water association conference, pp 91–100Google Scholar
  33. García-Payo MC, Izquierdo-Gil MA, Fernández-Pineda C (2000) Air gap membrane distillation of aqueous alcohol solutions. J Membr Sci 169:61–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gilron J, Ladizansky Y, Korin E (2013) Silica fouling in direct contact membrane distillation. Ind Eng Chem Res 52:10521–10529CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Goh S, Zhang J, Liu Y, Fane AG (2013) Fouling and wetting in membrane distillation (MD) and MD-bioreactor (MDBR) for wastewater reclamation. Desalination 323:39–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gryta M (2007) Effect of iron oxides scaling on the MD process performance. Desalination 216:88–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gryta M (2008) Fouling in direct contact membrane distillation process. J Membr Sci 325:383–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gryta M (2010a) Desalination of thermally softened water by membrane distillation process. Desalination 257:30–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gryta M (2010b) Application of membrane distillation process for tap water purification. Membr Water Treat 1(1):1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gryta M (2013) The concentration of geothermal brines with iodine content by membrane distillation. Desalination 325:16–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gryta M, Tomaszewska M, Grzechulska J, Morawski A (2001) Membrane distillation of NaCl solution containing natural organic matter. J Membr Sci 181:279–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gryta M, Tomaszewska M, Karakulski K (2006) Wastewater treatment by membrane distillation. Desalination 198:67–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gryta M, Markowska-Szczupak A, Bastrzyk J, Tomczak W (2013) The study of membrane distillation used for separation of fermenting glycerol solutions. J Membr Sci 431:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Guadie A, Xia S, Jiang W, Zhou L, Zhang Z, Hermanowicz SW, Xu X, Shen S (2014) Enhanced struvite recovery from wastewater using a novel cone-inserted fluidized bed reactor. J Environ Sci 26:765–774CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. He F, Sirkar KK, Gilron J (2009) Studies on scaling of membranes in desalination by direct contact membrane distillation: CaCO3 and mixed CaCO3/CaSO4 systems. Chem Eng Sci 64:1844–1859CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. He K, Hwang HJ, Woo MW, Moon IS (2011) Production of drinking water from saline water by direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD). J Ind Eng Chem 17:41–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hickenbottom KL, Cath TY (2014) Sustainable operation of membrane distillation for enhancement of mineral recovery from hypersaline solutions. J Membr Sci 454:426–435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hou D, Dai G, Wang J, Fan H, Luan Z, Fu C (2013) Boron removal and desalination from seawater by PVDF flat-sheet membrane through direct contact membrane distillation. Desalination 326:115–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hsu S, Cheng K, Chiou J (2002) Seawater desalination by direct contact membrane distillation. Desalination 143:279–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Huber SA, Balz A, Abert M, Pronk W (2011) Characterisation of aquatic humic and non-humic matter with size-exclusion chromatography-organic carbon detection-organic nitrogen detection (LC-OCD-OND). Water Res 45:879–885CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Janneck E, Cook M, Kunze C, Sommer K, Dinu L (2012) Ettringite precipitation vs nano-filtration for effieenct sulphates removal from mine water. In: International mine water association conference, pp 206I–206RGoogle Scholar
  52. Jucker C, Clark MM (1994) Adsorption of aquatic humic substances on hydrophobic ultrafiltration membranes. J Membr Sci 97:37–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Khayet M (2011) Membranes and theoretical modelling of membrane distillation: a review. Adv Colloid Interface Sci 164:56–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Khayet M, Mengual J (2004) Effect of salt concentration during the treatment of humic acid solutions by membrane distillation. Desalination 168:373–381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Khayet M, Velázquez A, Mengual JI (2004) Direct contact membrane distillation of humic acid solutions. J Membr Sci 240:123–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kullab A, Martin A (2011) Membrane distillation and applications for water purification in thermal cogeneration plants. Sep Purif Technol 76:231–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Landers M, Harris D, Usher B, Morris R, Moser A (2012) Hydrochemical compatibility assessments of aquifer injection of treated coal stream gas water into Surat basin aquifers. In: International mine water association conference, pp 131–138Google Scholar
  58. Lawson KW, Lloyd DR (1996) Membrane distillation. I. Module design and performance evaluation using vacuum membrane distillation. J Membr Sci 120:111–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Lawson KW, Lloyd DR (1997) Review: membrane distillation. J Membr Sci 124:1–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Lilley T (2012) Membrane based water and wastewater treatment solutions. In: International mine water association conference, pp 631–636Google Scholar
  61. Liu Y, Kwag JH, Kim JH, Ra C (2011) Recovery of nitrogen and phosphorus by struvite crystallization from swine wastewater. Desalination 277:364–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Macedonio F, Drioli E (2008) Pressure-drivenmembrane operations andmembrane distillation technology integration for water purification. Desalination 223:396–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Macedonio F, Quist-Jensen CA, Al-Harbi O, Alromaih H, Al-Jlil SA, Al Shabouna F, Drioli E (2013) Thermodynamic modeling of brine and its use in membrane crystallizer. Desalination 323:83–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Madzivire G, Gitari WM, Vadapalli VRK, Petrik LF (2012) Application of a jet loop reactor to enhance removal of sulphates from mine water using coal fly ash, lime and aluminium hydroxide. In: International mine water association conference, pp 183–200Google Scholar
  65. Martínez L (2004) Comparison of membrane distillation performance using different feeds. Desalination 168:359–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Martinez L, Rodriguez-Maroto JM (2007) Effects of membrane and module design improvements on flux in direct contact membrane distillation. Desalination 205:97–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Martínez-Díez L, Florido-Diez FJ, Vazquez-Gonzalez MI (1999) Study of evaporation efficiency in membrane distillation. Desalination 126:193–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Meng S, Ye Y, Mansouri J, Chen V (2014) Fouling and crystallisation behaviour of superhydrophobic nano-composite PVDF membranes in direct contact membrane distillation. J Membr Sci 463:102–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Mengual JI, Khayet M, Godino MP (2004) Heat and mass transfer in vacuum membrane distillation. Int J Heat Mass Transfer 47:865–875CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Mericq JP, Laborie S, Cabassud C (2010) Vacuum membrane distillation of seawater reverse osmosis brines. Water Resour 44(18):5260–5273Google Scholar
  71. Mersmann A (1988) Design of crystallizers. Chem Eng Process 23:213–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Mohammadi T, Akbarabadi M (2005) Separation of ethylene glycol solution by vacuum membrane distillation (VMD). Desalination 181:35–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Mulder M (1996) Basic principles of membrane technology. Kluwer Academic Press, Dordrecht, p 48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Naidu GN (2014) Detailed study on membrane distillation: scaling and fouling control. Ph.D. thesis, University of Technology, SydneyGoogle Scholar
  75. Naidu G, Jeong S, Kim S, Kim IS, Vigneswaran S (2014) Organic fouling behavior in direct contact membrane distillation. Desalination 347:230–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Naidu G, Jeong S, Vigneswaran S (2015) Interaction of humic substances on fouling in membrane distillation for seawater desalination. Chem Eng J 262:946–957CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Novhe NO (2012) Evaluation of the applicability of the passive treatment for the management of pollutaed mine water in the Witwatersrand Goldfields, South Africa. In: International mine water association conference, pp 417–424Google Scholar
  78. Pangarkar BL, Sane MG, Parjane SB, Guddad M (2011) Vacuum membrane distillation for desalination of ground water by using flat sheet membrane. Int J Chem Biol Eng 4:1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Pastor L, Mangin D, Ferrer J, Seco A (2010) Struvite formation from the supernatants of an anaerobic digestion pilot plant. Bioresour Technol 101:118–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Peng P, Fane AG, Li X (2005) Desalination by membrane distillation adopting a hydrophilic membrane. Desalination 173:45–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Pronk W, Palmquist H, Biebow M, Boller M (2006) Nanofiltration for the separation of pharmaceuticals from nutrients in source-separated urine. Water Res 40:1405–1412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Purdon FF, Slater VW (1946) Aqueous solution and the phase diagram. Butler & Tanner Ltd., FromeGoogle Scholar
  83. Qtaishat MR, Banat F (2013) Desalination by solar powered membrane distillation systems. Desalination 308:186–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Qtaishat M, Matsuura T, Kruczek B, Khayet M (2008) Heat and mass transfer analysis in direct contact membrane distillation. Desalination 219:272–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Qu D, Sun D, Wang H, Yun Y (2013) Experimental study of ammonia removal from water by modified direct contact membrane distillation. Desalination 326:135–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Quist-Jensen CA, Macedonia F, Drioli E (2016) Membrane crystallization for salts recovery from brine—an experimental and theoretical analysis. Desalination Water Treat 57:7593–7603Google Scholar
  87. Ranganathan K, Karunagaran K, Sharma DC (2007) Recycling of wastewaters of textile dyeing industries using advanced treatment technology and cost analysis—case studies. Resour Conserv Recycl 50:306–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Schneider K, Holz W, Wollbeck R (1988) Membranes and modules for transmembrane distillation. J Membr Sci 39:25–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Shao F, Hao C, Ni L, Zhang Y, Du R, Meng J, Liu Z, Xiao C (2014) Experimental and theoretical research on N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone concentration by vacuum membrane distillation using polypropylene hollow fiber membrane. J Membr Sci 452:157–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Shirazi MMA, Kargari A, Shirazi MJA (2012) Direct contact membrane distillation for seawater desalination. Desalination Water Treat 49:368–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Shirazi MMA, Kargari A, Tabatabaei M (2014) Evaluation of commercial PTFE membranes in desalination by direct contact membrane distillation. Chem Eng Process 76:16–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Shirazi MMA, Kargari A, Tabatabaei M (2015) Sweeping gas membrane distillation (SGMD) as an alternative for integration of bioethanol processing: study on a commercial membrane and operating parameters. Chem Eng Commun 202:457–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Singh D, Sirkar KK (2012) Desalination of brine and produced water by direct contact membrane distillation at high temperatures and pressures. J Membr Sci 389:380–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Sirkar KK, Li B (2008) Novel membrane and device for direct contact membrane distillation-based desalination process: phase-III; desalination and water purification research and development program report no. 99, Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, pp 1–62Google Scholar
  95. Sivakumar M, Ramezanianpour M, Halloran GO (2013) Mine water treatment using a vacuum membrane distillation system, ICESD 2013: January 19–20, Dubai, UAE. APCBEE Procedia 5:157–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Sparrow B, Man M, Zoshi J (2012) Novel salt extractor system for salt removal from mine water and calcium sulphate removal on the international space station. In: International mine water association conference, pp 651–659Google Scholar
  97. Srisurichan S, Jiraratananon R, Fane A (2005) Humic acid fouling in the membrane distillation process. Desalination 174:63–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Srisurichan S, Jiraratananon R, Fane AG (2006) Mass transfer mechanisms and transport resistances in direct contact membrane distillation process. J Membr Sci 277:186–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Tavare NS (1995) Industrial crystallization process simulation analysis and design. Springer, New York, p 550Google Scholar
  100. Termpiyakul P, Jiraratananon R, Srisurichan S (2005) Heat and mass transfer characteristics of a direct contact membrane distillation process for desalination. Desalination 177:133–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Thomsen K, Rasmussen P, Gani R (1998) Simulation and optimization of fractional crystallization processes. Chem Eng Sci 53:1551–1564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Tomaszewska M, Białończyk L (2013) Production of ethanol from lactose in a bioreactor integrated with membrane distillation. Desalination 323:114–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Tun CM, Groth AM (2011) Sustainable integrated membrane contactor process for water reclamation, sodium sulfate salt and energy recovery from industrial effluent. Desalination 283:187–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Tun CM, Fane AG, Matheickal JT, Sheikholeslami R (2005) Membrane distillation crystallization of concentrated salts-flux and crystal formation. J Membr Sci 257:144–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Tun LL, Jeong D, Jeong S, Cho K, Lee S, Bae H (2016) Dewatering of source-separated human urine for nitrogen recovery by membrane distillation. J Membr Sci 512:13–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Udert KM, Wächter M (2012) Complete nutrient recovery from source-separated urine by nitrification and distillation. Water Res 46(2):453–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Ugrozov VV, Elkina IB, Nikulin VN, Kataeva LI (2003) Theoretical and experimental research of liquid–gas membrane distillation process in membrane module. Desalination 157:325–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Urtiaga AM, Ruiz G, Ortiz I (2000) Kinetic analysis of the vacuummembrane distillation of the chloroform form aqueous solutions. J Membr Sci 165:99–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Van der Bruggen B (2013) Integrated membrane separation processes for recycling of valuable wastewater streams: nanofiltration, membrane distillation, and membrane crystallizers revisited. Ind Eng Chem Res 52:10335–10341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Walton J (2004) Solar and waste heat desalination by membrane distillation. College of Engineering University of Texas, El PasoGoogle Scholar
  111. Wang X, Wang Y, Zhang X, Feng H, Li C, Xu T (2013) Phosphate recovery from excess sludge by conventional electrodialysis (CED) and electrodialysis with bipolar membranes (EDBM). Ind Eng Chem Res 52:15896–15904CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Wijekoon KC, Hai FI, Kang J, Price WE, Cath TY, Nghiem LD (2014) Rejection and fate of trace organic compounds (TrOCs) during membrane distillation. J Membr Sci 453:636–642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Wirth D, Cabassud C (2002) Water desalination using membrane distillation: comparison between inside/out and outside/in permeation. Desalination 147:139–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Wright IA (2011). Coal mine dewatering of saline wastewater into NSW streams and rivers: a growing headache for water pollution regulators. In: Proceedings of the 6th Australian stream 1 management conference. Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, pp 1–7Google Scholar
  115. Wu Y, Kong Y, Liu J, Zhang J, Xu J (1991) An experimental study on membrane distillation-crystallization for treating waste water in taurine production. Desalination 80:235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Wu B, Tan X, Li K, Teo WK (2007) Preparation and characterization of poly(vinylidene fluoride) hollow fiber membranes for vacuum membrane distillation. J Appl Polym Sci 106:1482–1495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Xu Y, Zhu BK, Xu YY (2006) Pilot test of vacuum membrane distillation for seawater desalination on a ship. Desalination 189(1–3):165–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Xu J, Singh YB, Amy GL, Ghaffour N (2016) Effect of operating parameters and membrane characteristics on air gap membrane distillation performance for the treatment of highly saline water. J Membr Sci 512:73–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Yu X, Yang H, Lei H, Shapiro A (2013) Experimental evaluation on concentrating cooling tower blowdown water by direct contact membrane distillation. Desalination 323:134–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Yun Y, Ma R, Zhang W, Fane AG, Li J (2006) Direct contact membrane distillation mechanism for high concentration NaCl solutions. Desalination 188:251–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Zarebska A, Nieto DR, Christensen KV, Norddahl B (2014) Ammonia recovery from agricultural wastes by membrane distillation: fouling characterization and mechanism. Water Res 56:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Zhang L, Wang Y, Cheng LH, Xu X, Chen H (2012) Concentration of lignocellulosic hydrolyzates by solar membrane distillation. Bioresour Technol 123:382–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Zhao ZP, Xu L, Shang X, Chen K (2013) Water regeneration from human urine by vacuum membrane distillation and analysis of membrane fouling characteristics. Sep Purif Technol 118:369–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Zolotarev PP, Ugrozof VV, Yolkina IB, Nikulin VN (1994) Treatment of waste water for removing heavy metals by membrane distillation. J Hazard Mater 37:7–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Biplob Kumar Pramanik
    • 1
  • Kandasamy Thangavadivel
    • 1
  • Li Shu
    • 1
  • Veeriah Jegatheesan
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.School of EngineeringRMIT UniversityMelbourneAustralia

Personalised recommendations