Advertisement

Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/Technology

, Volume 15, Issue 3, pp 479–498 | Cite as

The biotechnological potential of whey

  • Michael P. RyanEmail author
  • Gary Walsh
Review paper

Abstract

Whey is a highly polluting by-product of cheese and casein powder manufacture with worldwide production of whey estimated at around 190 × 106 ton/year and growing. Historically whey was considered a burdensome, environmentally damaging by-product. In the last decades however, much research has gone into finding viable alternatives for whey rather than just disposing of it. Multiple biotechnological avenues have been explored and in some cases exploited to turn this waste product into a valuable commodity. Avenues explored include traditional uses of whey as both an animal and human food to the more advanced uses such as the use of whey protein as health promoters and the potential of whey to be used as a feed stock to manufacture a whole range of useful substances e.g. ethanol.

Keywords

Whey Biotechnology Ethanol Bioconversion 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was funded by the EPA under the Science, Technology, Research and Innovation for the Environment (STRIVE) Programme 2007–2013. 2012-WRM-MS-9.

References

  1. Abou-Zeid A-ZA, Baghlaf AO, Khan JA, Makhashin SS (1983) Utilization of date seeds and cheese whey in production of citric acid by Candida lipolytica. AGR Wastes 8:131–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahn WS, Park SJ, Lee SY (2000) Production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) by fed-batch culture of recombinant Escherichia coli with a highly concentrated whey solution. Appl Environ Microbiol 66:3624–3627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahn W, Park S, Lee S (2001) Production of poly (3-hydroxybutyrate) from whey by cell recycle fed-batch culture of recombinant Escherichia coli. Biotechnol Lett 23:235–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aider M, Halleux D (2007) Isomerization of lactose and lactulose production: review. Trends Food Sci Technol 18:356–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Akpinar-Bayizit A, Ozcan T, Yilmaz-Ersan L, Basoglu F (2014) Single cell oil (SCO) production by Fusarium species using cheese whey as a substrate. Mljekarstvo 64:111–118Google Scholar
  6. Alonso S, Rendueles M, Díaz M (2013) Feeding strategies for enhanced lactobionic acid production from whey by Pseudomonas taetrolens. Bioresour Technol 134:134–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Amiali MN, Lacroix C, Simard RE (1998) High nisin Z production by Lactococcus lactis UL719 in whey permeate with aeration. World J Microb Biotechnol 14:887–894CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ananou S, Muñoz A, Gálvez A, Martínez-Bueno M, Maqueda M, Valdivia E (2008) Optimization of enterocin AS-48 production on a whey-based substrate. Int Dairy J 18:923–927CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Anon (2014) Global cheese manufacturing: market research report. IBIS WorldGoogle Scholar
  10. Antila P, Paakkarib I, Järvinenb A, Mattilab MJ, Laukkanenc M, Pihlanto-Leppäläc A, Mäntsäläd P, Hellmand J (1991) Opioid peptides derived from in vitro proteolysis of bovine whey proteins. Int Dairy J 1:215–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Anupama RP (2000) Value-added food: single cell protein. Biotechnol Adv 18:459–479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Anvari M, Khayati G (2011) Submerged yeast fermentation of cheese whey for protein production and nutritional profile analysis. Adv J Food Sci Tech 3:122–126Google Scholar
  13. Auras RA, Lim LT, Selke SEM, Tsuji H (2011) Poly(lactic acid): Synthesis, Structures, Properties, Processing, and Applications. John Wiley & SonsGoogle Scholar
  14. Azbar N, Çetinkaya Dokgöz FT, Keskin T, Korkmaz KS, Syed HM (2009) Continuous fermentative hydrogen production from cheese whey wastewater under thermophilic anaerobic conditions. Int J Hydrogen Energy 34:7441–7447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bajpai P, Verma N, Neer J, Bajpai PK (1991) Utilization of cheese whey for production of α-amylase enzyme. J Biotechnol 18:265–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bajpai P, Gera RK, Bajpai PK (1992) Optimization studies for the production of α-amylase using cheese whey medium. Enzyme Microb Technol 14:679–683CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Baldasso C, Barros TC, Tessaro IC (2011) Concentration and purification of whey proteins by ultrafiltration. Desalination 278:381–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bansal S, Oberoi HS, Dhillon GS, Patil R (2008) Production of β-galactosidase by Kluyveromyces marxianus MTCC 1388 using whey and effect of four different methods of enzyme extraction on β-galactosidase activity. Indian J Appl Microbiol 48:337–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Beaulieu J, Dupont C, Lemieux P (2006) Whey proteins and peptides: beneficial effects on immune health. Therapy 3:69–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Beshkova D, Frengova G (2012) Bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria: microorganisms of potential biotechnological importance for the dairy industry. Eng Life Sci 12:419–432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Blanc P, Daures JP, Rouillon JM, Peray P, Pierrugues R, Larrey D, Gremy F, Michel H (1992) Lactitol or lactulose in the treatment of chronic hepatic encephalopathy: results of a meta-analysis. Hepatology 15:222–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bounous G (2000) Whey protein concentrate (WPC) and glutathione modulation in cancer treatment. Anticancer Res 20:4785–4792Google Scholar
  23. Bounous G, Batist G, Gold P (1991) Whey proteins in cancer prevention. Cancer Lett 57:91–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Bounous G, Baruchel S, Falutz J, Gold P (1993) Whey proteins as a food supplement in HIV-seropositive individuals. Clinical and investigative medicine. Clin Invest Med 16:204–209Google Scholar
  25. Boze H, Moulin G, Galzy P (1995) Production of microbial biomass. In: Rehm HJ, Reed G (eds) Biotechnology Set. Wiley, pp 165–220Google Scholar
  26. Budny D, Sotero P (2007) The global dynamics of biofuels. Braz Inst Spec Rep 4:8Google Scholar
  27. Cellulac (2014) Lactic acid from lactose whey in worlds first continuous production runs. http://cellulac.co.uk/en/etiam-cursus-leo-vel-metus/lactic-acid-from-lactose-whey-in-world-first-continuous-production-runs/
  28. Champagne CP, Goulet J (1988) Growth of bakers’ yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in lactose-hydrolyzed cheese whey ultrafiltrate. Can Inst Food Sci Technol J 21:545–548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Chaturvedi M, Subramani S, Madamwar D (1999) Fermentative production of gluconic acid using cheese whey. J Food Sci Tech 36:361–364Google Scholar
  30. Chatzipaschali AA, Stamatis AG (2012) Biotechnological utilization with a focus on anaerobic treatment of cheese whey: current status and prospects. Energies 5:3492–3525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Chen H, Hoover DG (2003) Bacteriocins and their food applications. Compr Rev Food Sci F 2:82–100Google Scholar
  32. Chen GQ, Patel MK (2012) Plastics derived from biological sources: present and future: a technical and environmental review. Chem Rev 112:2082–2099CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Chen GQ, Wu Q (2005) The application of polyhydroxyalkanoates as tissue engineering materials. Biomaterials 26(33):6565–6578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Cihangir N, Aksöza N (1997) Evaluation of some food industry wastes for production of gibberellic acid by fungal source. Environ Technol 18:533–537CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Cladera-Olivera F, Caron GR, Brandelli A (2004) Bacteriocin production by Bacillus licheniformis strain P40 in cheese whey using response surface methodology. Biochem Eng J 21:53–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Collet C, Adler N, Schwitzguebel JP, Peringer P (2004) Hydrogen production by Clostridium thermolacticum during continuous fermentation of lactose. Int J Hydrogen Energy 29:1479–1485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Colomban A, Roger L, Boyaval P (1993) Production of propionic acid from whey permeate by sequential fermentation, ultrafiltration, and cell recycling. Biotechnol Bioeng 42:1091–1098CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Cornish J, Callon KE, Naot D, Palmano KP, Banovic T, Bava U, Watson M, Lin JM, Tong PC, Chen Q, Chan VA, Reid HE, Fazzalari N, Baker HM, Baker EN, Haggarty NW, Grey AB, Reid IR (2004) Lactoferrin is a potent regulator of bone cell activity and increases bone formation in vivo. Endocrinology 145:4366–4374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Cotter PD, Ross RP, Hill C (2013) Bacteriocins [mdash] a viable alternative to antibiotics? Nat Rev Micro 11:95–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Cross ML, Gill HS (2000) Immunomodulatory properties of milk. Br J Nutr 84(Suppl 1):S81–S89Google Scholar
  41. Daniel HJ, Otto RT, Binder M, Reuss M, Syldatk C (1999) Production of sophorolipids from whey: development of a two-stage process with Cryptococcus curvatus ATCC 20509 and Candida bombicola ATCC 22214 using deproteinized whey concentrates as substrates. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 51:40–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. de Bales SA, Castillo FJ (1979) Production of lactase by Candida pseudotropicalis grown in whey. Appl Environ Microbiol 37:1201–1205Google Scholar
  43. De Souza Oliveira RP, Rodrigues Florence AC, Perego P, De Oliveira MN, Converti A (2011) Use of lactulose as prebiotic and its influence on the growth, acidification profile and viable counts of different probiotics in fermented skim milk. Int J Food Microbiol 145:22–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. De Wit JN (2001) Lecturer’s handbook on whey and whey products, 1st edn. European Whey Products Association, Brussels. http://ewpa.euromilk.org/nc/publications.html
  45. Dills WL (1989) Sugar alcohols as bulk sweeteners. Annu Rev Nutr 9:161–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Domingues L, Lima N, Teixeira JA (2001) Alcohol production from cheese whey permeate using genetically modified flocculent yeast cells. Biotechnol Bioeng 72:507–514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Donaghy JA, McKay AM (1994) Pectin extraction from citrus peel by polygalacturonase produced on whey. Bioresour Technol 47:25–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Doyle A (2005) Another step in biofuel supply. http://www.farmersjournal.ie/2005/1008/farmmanagement/crops/index.shtml
  49. El-Holi MA, Al-Delaimy S (2004) Citric acid production from whey with sugars and additives by Aspergillus niger. Afr J Biotechnol 2:356–359Google Scholar
  50. El-Shora HM, Metwally A-A (2008) Production, purification and characterisation of proteases from whey by some fungi. Ann Microbiol 58:495–502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Faruqui AA, Joshi C (2012) Lactitol: a review of its use in the treatment of constipation. Int J Recent Adv Pharm Res 2:1–5Google Scholar
  52. Ferchichi M, Crabbe E, Gil GH, Hintz W, Almadidy A (2005) Influence of initial pH on hydrogen production from cheese whey. J Biotechnol 120:402–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Flores SH, Alegre RM (2001) Nisin production from Lactococcus lactis A.T.C.C. 7962 using supplemented whey permeate. Biotechnol Appl Biochem 34:103–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Fox PF, McSweeney PLH (1998) Dairy Chemistry and Biochemistry. Blackie Academic and Professional PublishersGoogle Scholar
  55. Gabardo S, Rech R, Rosa CA, Ayub MAZ (2014) Dynamics of ethanol production from whey and whey permeate by immobilized strains of Kluyveromyces marxianus in batch and continuous bioreactors. Renew Energy 69:89–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Gänzle MG, Haase G, Jelen P (2008) Lactose: crystallization, hydrolysis and value-added derivatives. Int Dairy J 18:685–694CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Ghaly AE, El-Taweel AA (1997) Continuous Ethanol Production from Cheese Whey Fermentation by Candida pseudotropicalis. Energ Sources 19(10):1043–1063CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Ghaly AE, Kamal M, Correia LR (2005) Kinetic modelling of continuous submerged fermentation of cheese whey for single cell protein production. Bioresour Technol 96:1143–1152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Ghaly AE, Mahmoud N, Rushton D, Arab F (2007) Potential environmental and health impacts of high land application of cheese whey. AJABS 2:106–117Google Scholar
  60. Gohlwar CS, Sethi RP, Marwaha SS, Seghal VK, Kennedy JF (1984) Gibberellic acid biosynthesis from whey and simulation of cultural parameters. Enzyme Microb Technol 6:312–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Golowczyc M, Vera C, Santos M, Guerrero C, Carasi P, Illanes A, Gómez-Zavaglia A, Tymczyszyn E (2013) Use of whey permeate containing in situ synthesised galacto-oligosaccharides for the growth and preservation of Lactobacillus plantarum. J Dairy Res 80:374–381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Gomez-Ruiz L, Garcia-Garibay M, Barzana E (1988) Utilization of endo-polygalacturonase from Kluyveromyces fragilis in the clarification of apple juice. J Food Sci 53:1236–1238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. González-Toledo SY, Domínguez-Domínguez J, García-Almendárez BE, Prado-Barragán LA, Regalado-González C (2010) Optimization of Nisin production by Lactococcus lactis UQ2 using supplemented whey as alternative culture medium. J Food Sci 75:M347–M353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Goulhen F, Meghrous J, Lacroix C (1999) Production of a nisin Z/pediocin mixture by pH-controlled mixed-strain batch cultures in supplemented whey permeate. J Appl Microbiol 86:399–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Guimarães PMR, Teixeira JA, Domingues L (2010) Fermentation of lactose to bio-ethanol by yeasts as part of integrated solutions for the valorisation of cheese whey. Biotechnol Adv 28:375–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Ha E, Zemel MB (2003) Functional properties of whey, whey components, and essential amino acids: mechanisms underlying health benefits for active people (review). J Nutr Biochem 14:251–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Hamilton R (1998) The manufacture of ethanol from whey. Chem Process N Z. http://nzic.org.nz/ChemProcesses/dairy/3H.pdf
  68. Hirsch J (2015) Protein drinks and baby formula could offset Greek yogurt’s dark side. The Guardian. http://www.theguardian.com/sustainable-business/2015/dec/08/greek-yogurt-acid-whey-protein-drinks-baby-formula-environmental-dark-side
  69. Hoffmann K (1961) On the history of whey cures, especially in the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries. Medizinische Monatsschrift 15:411Google Scholar
  70. Holsinger VH, Posati LP, DeVilbiss ED (1974) Whey beverages: a review. J Dairy Sci 57:849–859CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Hossain M (1983) Submerged citric acid fermentation of whey permeate by Aspergillus niger. Ph.D. Thesis. Massey UniversityGoogle Scholar
  72. Hurley WL, Theil PK (2011) Perspectives on Immunoglobulins in colostrum and milk. Nutrients 3:442–474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Iigo M, Kuhara T, Ushida Y, Sekine K, Moore M, Tsuda H (1999) Inhibitory effects of bovine lactoferrin on colon carcinoma 26 lung metastasis in mice. Clin Exp Metast 17:43–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Ismaila B, Gub Z (2010) Whey protein hydrolysates: current knowledge and challenges. Midwest Dairy Foods Research Center. http://www.midwestdairy.umn.edu/prod/groups/cfans/@pub/@cfans/@fscn/@dairy_center/documents/article/cfans_article_480763.pdf
  75. Jelen P (2003) Whey processing-Utilization and products. In: Roginski H, Fuquay JW, Fox PF (eds) Encyclopedia of Dairy Sciences. Academic Press, pp 2739–2745Google Scholar
  76. Jelen P (2009) Whey based functional beverages. In: Paquin P (ed) Functional and speciality beverage technology. Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, pp 259–279Google Scholar
  77. Jelen P, Buchheim W (1976) Norwegian whey cheese. Food Technol 30:62Google Scholar
  78. Jeličić I, Božanić R, Tratnik L (2008) Whey-based beverages-a new generation of dairy products. Mljekarstvo 58:257–274Google Scholar
  79. Jenq W, Speckman RA, Crang RE, Steinberg MP (1989) Enhanced conversion of lactose to glycerol by Kluyveromyces fragilis utilizing whey permeate as a substrate. Appl Environ Microbiol 55:573–578Google Scholar
  80. Jinjarak S, Olabi A, Jiménez-Flores R, Walker JH (2006) Sensory, functional, and analytical comparisons of whey butter with other butters. J Dairy Sci 89:2428–2440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Joesten MD, Hogg JL, Castellion ME (2006) The world of chemistry: essentials: essentials. Thomson Brooks/Cole, Pacific GroveGoogle Scholar
  82. Jost R, Maire J-C, Maynard F, Secretin MC (1999) Aspects of whey protein usage in infant nutrition, a brief review. Int J Food Sci Tech 34(5–6):533–542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Jones E, Salin V, Williams GW (2005) Nisin and the market for commerical bacteriocins. Texas Agribusiness Market Research Center Texas, College StationGoogle Scholar
  84. Jovanovic-Malinovska R, Fernandes P, Winkelhausen E, Fonseca L (2012) Galacto-oligosaccharides synthesis from lactose and whey by β-galactosidase immobilized in PVA. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 168:1197–1211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Kapdan IK, Kargi F (2006) Bio-hydrogen production from waste materials. Enzyme Microb Technol 38:569–582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Kaur R, Panesar PS, Singh RS (2015) Utilization of whey for the production of β-galactosidase using yeast and fungal culture. World Acad Sci Eng Technol 9:690–694Google Scholar
  87. Keenan J, Pearson D, Clynes M (2006) The role of recombinant proteins in the development of serum-free media. Cytotechnology 50:49–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Kim BS (2000) Production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) from inexpensive substrates. Enzyme Microb Tech 27:774–777CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Koller M, Hesse P, Bona R, Kutschera C, Atlić A, Braunegg G (2007) Potential of various archae- and eubacterial strains as industrial polyhydroxyalkanoate producers from whey. Macromol Biosci 7:218–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Kosaric N, Asher YJ (1985) The utilization of cheese whey and its components. In: Asher YJ (ed) Agricultural Feedstock and Waste Treatment and Engineering, Vol 32. Advances in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology. Springer, Berlin, pp 25–60Google Scholar
  91. Kosikowski FV (1968) Nutritional beverages from acid whey powder. J Dairy Sci 51:1299–1301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Kosikowski FV (1979) Whey utilization and whey products. J Dairy Sci 62:1149–1160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Kośmider A, Drożdżyńska A, Blaszka K, Leja K, Czaczyk K (2010) Propionic acid production by Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii using industrial wastes: crude glycerol and whey lactose. Pol J Environ Stud 19:1249–1253Google Scholar
  94. Kozu T, Iinuma G, Ohashi Y, Saito Y, Akasu T, Saito D, Alexander DB, Iigo M, Kakizoe T, Tsuda H (2009) Effect of orally administered bovine lactoferrin on the growth of adenomatous colorectal polyps in a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Cancer Prev Res 2:975–983CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Krissansen GW (2007) Emerging health properties of whey proteins and their clinical implications. JACN 26:713S–723SCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Laursen I, Briand P, Lykkesfeldt A (1989) Serum albumin as a modulator on growth of the human breast cancer cell line, MCF-7. Anticancer Res 10:343–351Google Scholar
  97. Lee SY (1996) Bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoates. Biotechnol Bioeng 49(1):1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Lee HK, Maddox IS (1984) Microbial production of 2,3-butanediol from whey permeate. Biotechnol Lett 6:815–818CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Lee HK, Maddox IS (1986) Continuous production of 2,3-butanediol from whey permeate using Klebsiella pneumoniae immobilized in calcium alginate. Enzyme Microb Technol 8:409–411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Lee PC, Lee WG, Kwon S, Lee SY, Chang HN (2000) Batch and continuous cultivation of Anaerobiospirillum succiniciproducens for the production of succinic acid from whey. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 54:23–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Lee KS, Whang LM, Saratale GD, Chen SD, Chang JS, Hafez H, Nakhla G, Naggar H (2014) Biological hydrogen production: dark fermentation. In: Sherif SA, Goswami DY, Stefanakos EK, Steinfeld A (eds) Handbook of Hydrogen Energy. The CRC Press Series in Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering. CRC Press, pp 249–320Google Scholar
  102. Lim K, van Calcar SC, Nelson KL, Gleason ST, Ney DM (2007) Acceptable low-phenylalanine foods and beverages can be made with glycomacropeptide from cheese whey for individuals with PKU. Mol Genet Metab 92:176–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Ling C (2008) Whey to ethanol: a biofuel role for dairy cooperatives? USDA Rural Development, research report 214. http://www.rurdev.usda.gov/supportdocuments/RR214.pdf
  104. Liu X, Chung Y-K, Yang S-T, Yousef AE (2005) Continuous nisin production in laboratory media and whey permeate by immobilized Lactococcus lactis. Process Biochem 40:13–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Liu J, Dantoft SH, Würtz A, Jensen PR, Solem C (2016) A novel cell factory for efficient production of ethanol from dairy waste. Biotechnol Biofuels 9:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Lyons T, Cunningham J (1980) Fuel alcohol from whey. Am Dairy Rev 42:42A–42EGoogle Scholar
  107. Maddox IS, Richert SH (1977) Production of gibberellic acid using a dairy waste as the basal medium. Appl Environ Microbiol 33:201–202Google Scholar
  108. Madureira AR, Tavares T, Gomes AMP, Pintado ME, Malcata FX (2010) Invited review: physiological properties of bioactive peptides obtained from whey proteins. J Dairy Sci 93:437–455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Mahmoud M, Kosikowski F (1982) Alcohol and single cell protein production by Kluyveromyces in concentrated whey permeates with reduced ash. J Dairy Sci 65:2082–2087CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Mansour MH, Ghaly AE, Ben-Hassan RM, Nassar MA (1993) Modeling batch production of single cell protein from cheese whey. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 43:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Markus CR, Olivier B, Panhuysen GE, Van Der Gugten J, Alles MS, Tuiten A, Westenberg HG, Fekkes D, Koppeschaar HF, de Haan EE (2000) The bovine protein α-lactalbumin increases the plasma ratio of tryptophan to the other large neutral amino acids, and in vulnerable subjects raises brain serotonin activity, reduces cortisol concentration, and improves mood under stress. Am J Clin Nutr 71:1536–1544Google Scholar
  112. Markus CR, Olivier B, de Haan EH (2002) Whey protein rich in α-lactalbumin increases the ratio of plasma tryptophan to the sum of the other large neutral amino acids and improves cognitive performance in stress-vulnerable subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 75:1051–1056Google Scholar
  113. Markus CR, Jonkman LM, Lammers JH, Deutz NE, Messer MH, Rigtering N (2005) Evening intake of α-lactalbumin increases plasma tryptophan availability and improves morning alertness and brain measures of attention. Am J Clin Nutr 81:1026–1033Google Scholar
  114. Marwaha SS, Kennedy JF (1988) Whey-pollution problem and potential utilization. Int J Food Sci Tech 23:323–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Mayer J, Conrad J, Klaiber I, Lutz-Wahl S, Beifuss U, Fischer L (2004) Enzymatic production and complete nuclear magnetic resonance assignment of the sugar lactulose. J Agric Food Chem 52:6983–6990CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Mizota T, Tamura Y, Tomita M, Okonogi S (1987) Lactulose as a sugar with physiological significance. Bull Int Dairy Fed 212:69–76Google Scholar
  117. Mollea C, Marmo L, Bosco F (2013) Valorisation of Cheese Whey, a By-Product from the Dairy Industry. In: Muzzalupo I (ed) Food Industry. InTech. doi: 10.5772/53159
  118. Mockaitis G, Ratusznei SM, Rodrigues JAD, Zaiat M, Foresti E (2006) Anaerobic whey treatment by a stirred sequencing batch reactor (ASBR): effects of organic loading and supplemented alkalinity. J Environ Manag 79:198–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Morais HA, Silvestre MPC, Amorin LL, Silva VDM, Silva MR, Simões e Silva AC, Silveira JN (2014) Use of different proteases to obtain whey protein concentrate hydrolysates with inhibitory activity toward angiotensin-converting enzyme. J Food Biochem 38:102–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Morales J, Choi J-S, Kim D-S (2006) Production rate of propionic acid in fermentation of cheese whey with enzyme inhibitors. Environ Prog 25:228–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Moulin G, Galzy P (1984) Whey, a potential substrate for biotechnology. Biotechnol Genet Eng Rev 1:347–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Mukhopadhyay R, Chatterjee S, Chatterjee BP, Banerjee PC, Guha AK (2005) Production of gluconic acid from whey by free and immobilized Aspergillus niger. Int Dairy J 15:299–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Müller (2015) Theo Müller group: company portrait. http://www.muellergroup.com/en/group/portrait/dairy-business/
  124. Murray BA, FitzGerald RJ (2007) Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory peptides derived from food proteins: biochemistry, bioactivity and production. Curr Pharm Des 13:773–791CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Neelima SR, Rajput Y, Mann B (2013) Chemical and functional properties of glycomacropeptide (GMP) and its role in the detection of cheese whey adulteration in milk: a review. Dairy Sci Technol 93:21–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Nurminen M-L, Sipola M, Kaarto H, Pihlanto-Leppala A, Piilola K, Korpela R, Tossavainen O, Korhonen H, Vapaatalo H (2000) α-Lactorphin lowers blood pressure measured by radiotelemetry in normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats. Life Sci 66:1535–1543CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. O’Sullivan L, Ross RP, Hill C (2002) Potential of bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria for improvements in food safety and quality. Biochimie 84:593–604CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Ohinata K, Inui A, Asakawa A, Wada K, Wada E, Yoshikawa M (2002) Albutensin A and complement C3a decrease food intake in mice. Peptides 23:127–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Ohr LM (2004) Nutraceuticals and functional foods. Food Technol 58:71–74Google Scholar
  130. Otto RT, Daniel HJ, Pekin G, Müller-Decker K, Fürstenberger G, Reuss M, Syldatk C (1999) Production of sophorolipids from whey. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 52:495–501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Panesar PS, Kennedy JF, Gandhi DN, Bunko K (2007) Bioutilisation of whey for lactic acid production. Food Chem 105:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Panesar PS, Kennedy JF, Knill CJ, Kosseva M (2010) Production of L(+) lactic acid using Lactobacillus casei from whey. Braz Arch Biol Technol 53:219–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Paraskevopoulou A, Athanasiadis I, Kanellaki M, Bekatorou A, Blekas G, Kiosseoglou V (2003) Functional properties of single cell protein produced by kefir microflora. Food Res Int 36:431–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Parrondo J, Garcia LA, Diaz M (2009) Whey Vinegar. In: Solieri L, Giudici P (eds) Vinegars of the World. Springer Milan, Milano, pp 273–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Parrish FW, Talley FB, Ross KD, Clark J, Phillips JG (1979) Sweetness of lactulose to sucrose. J Food Sci Tech 44:813–815Google Scholar
  136. Patel S, Murthy ZVP (2011) Waste valorization: recovery of lactose from partially deproteinated whey by using acetone as anti-solvent. Dairy Sci Technol 91:53–63Google Scholar
  137. Paterson AHJ (2009) Production and Uses of Lactose. In: McSweeney P, Fox FP (eds) Advanced Dairy Chemistry: Volume 3: Lactose, Water, Salts and Minor Constituents. Springer US, pp 105–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Patil DH, Westaby D, Mahida YR, Palmer KR, Rees R, Clark ML, Dawson AM, Silk DB (1987) Comparative modes of action of lactitol and lactulose in the treatment of hepatic encephalopathy. Gut 28:255–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Perego P, Converti A, Del Borghi A, Canepa P (2000) 2,3-Butanediol production by Enterobacter aerogenes: selection of the optimal conditions and application to food industry residues. Bioprocess Eng 23:613–620CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Pérez Guerra N, Bernárdez PF, Agrasar AT, López Macías C, Castro LP (2005) Fed-batch pediocin production by Pediococcus acidilactici NRRL B-5627 on whey. Biotechnol Appl Biochem 42:17–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Pesta G, Meyer-Pittroff R, Russ W (2007) Utilization of whey. In: Oreopoulou V, Russ W (eds) Utilization of By-Products and Treatment of Waste in the Food Industry. Springer, pp 193–207Google Scholar
  142. Pihlanto A (2011) Whey proteins and peptides. Nutrafoods 10:29–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Pintado ME, Macedo AC, Malcata FX (2001) Review: technology, chemistry and microbiology of whey cheeses. Food Sci Technol Int 7:105–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Playford RJ, Floyd DN, Macdonald CE, Calnan DP, Adenekan RO, Johnson W, Goodlad RA, Marchbank T (1999) Bovine colostrum is a health food supplement which prevents NSAID induced gut damage. Gut 44(5):653–658CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Pouliot Y, Gauthier SF (2006) Milk growth factors as health products: some technological aspects. Int Dairy J 16:1415–1420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Povolo S, Casella S (2003) Bacterial production of PHA from lactose and cheese whey permeate. Macromol Symp 197(1):1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Povolo S, Toffano P, Basaglia M, Casella S (2010) Polyhydroxyalkanoates production by engineered Cupriavidus necator from waste material containing lactose. Bioresour Technol 101:7902–7907CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Prazeres AR, Carvalho F, Rivas J (2012) Cheese whey management: a review. J Environ Manag 110:48–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Qureshi N, Friedl A, Maddox IS (2014) Butanol production from concentrated lactose/whey permeate: use of pervaporation membrane to recover and concentrate product. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 98:9859–9867CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Raganati F, Olivieri G, Procentese A, Russo ME, Salatino P, Marzocchella A (2013) Butanol production by bioconversion of cheese whey in a continuous packed bed reactor. Bioresour Technol 138:259–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Rao MV, Dutta SM (1977) Production of beta-galactosidase from Streptococcus thermophilus grown in whey. Appl Environ Microbiol 34:185–188Google Scholar
  152. Rapin J-D, Marison IW, von Stockar U, Reilly PJ (1994) Glycerol production by yeast fermentation of whey permeate. Enzyme Microb Technol 16:143–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Regester GO, Belford DA (1999) New therapeutics from a dairy byproduct—cheese whey. Drug Dev Res 46:286–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Requena P, González R, López-Posadas R, Abadía-Molina A, Suárez MD, Zarzuelo A, de Medina FS, Martínez-Augustin O (2010) The intestinal antiinflammatory agent glycomacropeptide has immunomodulatory actions on rat splenocytes. Biochem Pharmacol 79:1797–1804CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Revillion JP, Brandelli A, Ayub MAZ (2003) Production of yeast extract from whey using Kluyveromyces marxianus. Braz Arch Biol Technol 46:121–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Rivas J, Prazeres AR, Carvalho F, Beltrán F (2010) Treatment of cheese whey wastewater: combined coagulation—flocculation and aerobic biodegradation. J Agric Food Chem 58:7871–7877CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Rogosa M, Tittsler P, Geib DS (1947) Correlation of vitamin requirements and cultural and biochemical characteristics of the genus Lactobacillus. J Bact 54:13Google Scholar
  158. Romero FJ, García LA, Salas JA, Díaz M, Quirós LM (2001) Production, purification and partial characterization of two extracellular proteases from Serratia marcescens grown in whey. Process Biochem 36:507–515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Rosales-Colunga LM, Razo-Flores E, Ordoñez LG, Alatriste-Mondragón F, De León-Rodríguez A (2010) Hydrogen production by Escherichia coli ΔhycA ΔlacI using cheese whey as substrate. Int J Hydrogen Energy 35:491–499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Sandström O, Lönnerdal B, Graverholt G, Hernell O (2008) Effects of α-lactalbumin—enriched formula containing different concentrations of glycomacropeptide on infant nutrition. Am J Clin Nutr 87:921–928Google Scholar
  161. Schaafsma G (2006a) Health issues of whey proteins: 1. Protection of lean body mass. Curr Top Nutraceut R 4:113–121Google Scholar
  162. Schaafsma G (2006b) Health issues of whey proteins: 2. Weight management. Curr Top Nutraceutical R 4:123–126Google Scholar
  163. Schingoethe DJ (1976) Whey Utilization in animal feeding: a summary and evaluation. J Dairy Sci 59:556–570CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Schmid M, Dallmann K, Bugnicourt E, Cordoni D, Wild F, Lazzeri A, Noller K (2012) Properties of Whey-Protein-Coated films and laminates as novel recyclable food packaging materials with excellent barrier properties. Int J Polymer Sci 7. Article ID 562381Google Scholar
  165. Schultz N, Chang L, Hauck A, Reuss M, Syldatk C (2006) Microbial production of single-cell protein from deproteinized whey concentrates. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 69:515–520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Shah NP (2000) Effects of milk-derived bioactives: an overview. Br J Nutr 84(Suppl 1):S3–S10Google Scholar
  167. Sharma S, Luzinov I (2013) Whey based binary bioplastics. J Food Eng 119(3):404–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Sienkiewicz T, Riedel CL (1990) Whey and whey utilization. Verlag Th Mann. Gelsenkircher-Baer, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  169. Silva A, Guimarães PR, Teixeira J, Domingues L (2010) Fermentation of deproteinized cheese whey powder solutions to ethanol by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae: effect of supplementation with corn steep liquor and repeated-batch operation with biomass recycling by flocculation. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 37:973–982CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Siso MIG (1996) The biotechnological utilization of cheese whey: a review. Bioresour Technol 57:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Smithers GW (2008) Whey and whey proteins-from ‘gutter-to-gold’. Int Dairy J 18:695–704CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Smithers GW (2015) Whey-ing up the options—yesterday, today and tomorrow. Int Dairy J 48:2–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Smithers GW, Ballard FJ, Copeland AD, De Silva KJ, Dionysius DA, Francis GL, Goddard C, Grieve PA, McIntosh GH, Mitchell IR, Pearce RJ, Regester GO (1996) New opportunities from the isolation and utilization of whey proteins. J Dairy Sci 79:1454–1459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Södergård A, Stolt M (2010) Industrial Production of High Molecular Weight Poly(Lactic Acid). In: Auras R, Lim L-T, Selke SEM, Tsuji H (eds) Poly(Lactic Acid). John Wiley & Sons, pp 27–41Google Scholar
  175. Solaiman DKY, Ashby RD, Foglia TA, Marmer WN (2006) Conversion of agricultural feedstock and coproducts into poly(hydroxyalkanoates). Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 71:783–789CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Speckman RA, Collins EB (1982) Microbial production of 2,3-butylene glycol from cheese whey. Appl Environ Microbiol 43:1216–1218Google Scholar
  177. Sudesh K, Abe H, Doi Y (2000) Synthesis, structure and properties of polyhydroxyalkanoates: biological polyesters. Prog Polym Sci 25(10):1503–1555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Tang L, Z-a L, X-x D, R-j Y, J-h Z, Z-g M (2011) Lactulose biosynthesis by β-galactosidase from a newly isolated Arthrobacter sp. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 38:471–476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Tani F, Shiota A, Chiba H, Yoshikawa M (1994) Serophin, an opioid peptide derived from serum albumin. In: Brantl V, Teschemacher H (eds) β-casomorphins and related peptides: recent developments. VCH-Weinheim, Weinheim, pp 49–53Google Scholar
  180. Thiele J (2005) Estimate of the energy potential for fuel ethanol from putrescible waste in New Zealand. Waste Solutions Ltd. http://www.bioenergy.org.nz/documents/liquidbiofuels/energy-potential-for-fuel-ethanol-from-putrescible-waste-in-nz-report-05.pdf
  181. Tipton KD, Elliott TA, Cree MG, Wolf SE, Sanford AP, Wolfe RR (2004) Ingestion of casein and whey proteins result in muscle anabolism after resistance exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 36(12):2073–2081CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Todar K (2014) Lactic Acid Bacteria’ in ‘Todar's Online Textbook of Bacteriology. http://textbookofbacteriology.net/lactics.html. Accessed 15 May 2016
  183. Torres DPM, Gonçalves M, Teixeira JA, Rodrigues LR (2010) Galacto-oligosaccharides: production, properties, applications, and significance as prebiotics. Compr Rev Food Sci F 9:438–454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Tramonte SM, Brand MB, Mulrow CD, Amato MG, O’Keefe ME, Ramirez G (1997) The treatment of chronic constipation in adults. J Gen Intern Med 12:15–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Vamvakaki A-N, Kandarakis I, Kaminarides S, Komaitis M, Papanikolaou S (2010) Cheese whey as a renewable substrate for microbial lipid and biomass production by Zygomycetes. Eng Life Sci 10:348–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Van Huynh N, Decleire M, Motte JC, Monseur X (1989) Production of gluconic and galactonic acids from whey. In: Jongejan JA, Duine JA (eds) PQQ and quinoproteins. Springer, Berlin, pp 97–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Vasiljevic T, Jelen P (2001) Production of β-galactosidase for lactose hydrolysis in milk and dairy products using thermophilic lactic acid bacteria. Innov Food Sci Emerg Technol 2:75–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Venetsaneas N, Antonopoulou G, Stamatelatou K, Kornaros M, Lyberatos G (2009) Using cheese whey for hydrogen and methane generation in a two-stage continuous process with alternative pH controlling approaches. Bioresour Technol 100:3713–3717CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Walsh G (2014) Proteins: biochemistry and biotechnology, 2nd edn. Wiley, LondonGoogle Scholar
  190. Walstra P, Walstra P, Wouters JTM, Geurts TJ (2005) Dairy Science and Technology, 2nd edn. CRC PressGoogle Scholar
  191. Wan C, Li Y, Shahbazi A, Xiu S (2008) Succinic acid production from cheese whey using Actinobacillus succinogenes 130 Z. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 145:111–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Watson KS, Peterson AE, Powell RD (1977) Benefits of spreading whey on agricultural land. J Water Pollut Control Fed 49:24–34. doi: 10.2307/25039215 Google Scholar
  193. Wee Y-J, Kim J-N, Ryu H-W (2006) Biotechnological production of lactic acid and its recent applications. Food Technol Biotech 44:163–172Google Scholar
  194. Welderufael FT, Gibson T, Jauregi P (2012) Production of angiotensin-I-converting enzyme inhibitory peptides from β-lactoglobulin- and casein-derived peptides: an integrative approach. Biotechnol Prog 28:746–755CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Willetts A, Ugalde U (1987) The production of single-cell protein from whey. Biotechnol Lett 9:795–800CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Wongso DD (1993) Optimisation of industrial whey ethanol fermentation process. Ph.D Thesis. Massey UniversityGoogle Scholar
  197. Yamamoto N, Maeno M, Takano T (1999) Purification and characterization of an antihypertensive peptide from a yogurt-like product fermented by Lactobacillus helveticus CPN4. J Dairy Sci 82:1388–1393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Yang ST, Silva EM (1995) Novel Products and new technologies for use of a familiar carbohydrate, milk lactose. J Dairy Sci 78:2541–2562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Yang P, Zhang R, McGarvey JA, Benemann JR (2007) Biohydrogen production from cheese processing wastewater by anaerobic fermentation using mixed microbial communities. Int J Hydrogen Energy 32:4761–4771CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Yang Y, Breen L, Burd NA, Hector AJ, Churchward-Venne TA, Josse AR, Tarnopolsky MA, Phillips SM (2012) Resistance exercise enhances myofibrillar protein synthesis with graded intakes of whey protein in older men. Br J Nutr 108:1780–1788CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Zacharis C (2012) Lactitol. In: O’Donnell KK, Malcolm W (eds) Sweeteners and sugar alternatives in food technology, 2nd edn. Wiley-Blackwell, Hoboken, pp 275–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Zafar S, Owais M (2006) Ethanol production from crude whey by Kluyveromyces marxianus. Biochem Eng J 27:295–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Zemel MB (2004) Role of calcium and dairy products in energy partitioning and weight management. Am J Clin Nutr 79:907S–912SGoogle Scholar
  204. Zohri A (2000) Glycerol production from cheese whey by selected fungal cultures. J Food Sci Tech (Mysore) 37:533–538Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Industrial Biochemistry Program, Chemical and Environmental Science Department, Materials and Surface Sciences InstituteUniversity of LimerickLimerick CityIreland

Personalised recommendations