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Soil flushing: a review of the origin of efficiency variability

  • O. Atteia
  • E. Del Campo Estrada
  • H. Bertin
Review paper

Abstract

Soil flushing using aqueous solutions is employed to solubilise contaminants. As water solubility is the controlling mechanism of dissolution, additives (surfactants, cosolvents, etc.) are used to enhance efficiencies and reduce the treatment time compared to the use of water alone. The use of surfactant alone gives efficiencies of about 80–85 % in laboratory experiments, but the amounts of product to be injected are very important, which does not seem to be economically sustainable. Studies indicate that when soil flushing is applied in the field, efficiency is very variable; it can vary from almost 0 % to almost 100 %. This illustrates the importance of knowledge of the field (soil heterogeneities, type of contamination, etc.). Using only one product (surfactant, cosolvent, cyclodextrin) often gives moderate efficiencies and needs very large amounts of products, with a product:pollutant ratio higher than 100:1. On the other hand, the use of more complex methods involving micro emulsions or several products with polymer injection lead to high efficiencies at first and a product:pollutant ratio that can be lower than 5. The importance of the initial saturation of the non-aqueous phase liquid is highlighted: the higher the initial saturation, the higher the efficiency. For initial saturations lower than 1 %, soil flushing may not be a very efficient technique. This paper provides an overview of recent studies in the area of soil and groundwater remediation, from laboratory columns scale to pilot and real sites. The research has focused on chlorinated solvents as they are extremely difficult to treat.

Keywords

Soil flushing NAPL Chlorinated solvents Surfactant 

Abbreviations

NAPL

Non aqueous phase liquid

PAH

Polyaromatic hydrocarbons

TCE

Trichloroethylene

PCE

Perchloroethylene

Tween® 80

Polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleate

AMA

Sodium dihexyl sulfosuccinate

IPA

Isopropanol

SAS

Secondary alkanesulfonate, anionic

SPME

Single phase micro emulsion

W2722

Witconol 2722 Polysorbate 80, non-ionic

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research has been funded by the INNOVASOL foundation and the ADEME.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.ENSEGID, EA 4592PessacFrance
  2. 2.Université de BordeauxTalenceFrance

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