Microbial decolorization and degradation of synthetic dyes: a review



The synthesis of dyes and pigments used in textiles and other industries generate the hazardous wastes. A dye is used to impart color to materials of which it becomes an integral part. The waste generated during the process and operation of the dyes commonly found to contain the inorganic and organic contaminant leading to the hazard to ecosystem and biodiversity causing impact on the environment. The amount of azo dyes concentration present in wastewater varied from lower to higher concentration that lead to color dye effluent causing toxicity to biological ecosystem. The physico-chemical treatment does not remove the color and dye compound concentration. The decolorization of the dye takes place either by adsorption on the microbial biomass or biodegradation by the cells. Bioremediation takes place by anaerobic and/or aerobic process. The anaerobic process converts dye in toxic amino compounds which on further treatment with aerobic reaction convert the intermediate into CO2 biomass and inorganics. In the present review the decolorization and degradation of azo dyes by fungi, algae, yeast and bacteria have been cited along with the anaerobic to aerobic treatment processes. The factors affecting decolorization and biodegradation of azo dye compounds such as pH, temperature, dye concentration, effects of CO2 and Nitrogen, agitation, effect of dye structure, electron donor and enzymes involved in microbial decolorization of azo dyes have been discussed. This paper will have the application for the decolorization and degradation of azo dye compound into environmental friendly compounds.


Decolorization Synthetic dyes Biodegradation Phytotoxicity Oxidoreductive enzymes 


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© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Environment and Sustainable DevelopmentCentral University of GujaratGandhinagarIndia

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