Kästner, M. & Cassiani, G. Rev Environ Sci Biotechnol (2009) 8: 131. doi:10.1007/s11157-009-9157-z
Conventional techniques for site characterisation are time consuming, cost intensive, and often do not support decision making with regard to sustainable remediation. Therefore, new techniques for step by step site characterization with smart feed back loops are necessary that are able to support a future “soil framework directive”. Advanced geophysical site characterization techniques combined with new types of vegetation analysis will be developed. Based on these non-invasive surveys, the extension of sources, contamination levels (THP, BTEX, PAH, CHC, explosives, heavy metals and radio nuclides) and soil heterogeneities will be localized first. Hot spots will then be investigated by new direct push probing systems integrated with geophysical and hydrogeological methods and combined with chemical and isotopic contaminant analysis for source localization and identification (environmental forensics). The actually occurring bioprocesses, such as contaminant degradation or sorption and mobilization processes, will be assessed using biosensors, in situ microcosms, and stable isotope and biomarker analysis. These new techniques and tools will be evaluated against best practice of conventional methods. The ModelPROBE project (EU-FP7 collaborative project) gives the opportunity to test, optimize and demonstrate the proposed approach at fully equipped and characterized European brownfield reference sites in Germany, Italy, Norway and the Czech Republic. Integrated statistical analysis and modelling at different stages, the step by step approach will result in an improved view of soil and subsurface contamination and will provide a sound basis for a cost-effective risk assessment and decision in the choice of the most appropriate sustainable remediation strategy.
Contaminated sites Geophysical methods Direct push techniques Microbial methods Tree ring analysis Stable isotopes Ecotoxicology Bioprocesses Environmental forensics