Advertisement

Factors affecting the removal of organic micropollutants from wastewater in conventional treatment plants (CTP) and membrane bioreactors (MBR)

  • Magdalena Cirja
  • Pavel Ivashechkin
  • Andreas Schäffer
  • Philippe F. X. CorviniEmail author
View Paper

Abstract

As a consequence of insufficient removal during treatment of wastewater released from industry and households, different classes of organic micropollutants are nowadays detected in surface and drinking water. Among these micropollutants, bioactive substances, e.g., endocrine disrupting compounds and pharmaceuticals, have been incriminated in negative effects on living organisms in aquatic biotope. Much research was done in the last years on the fate and removal of those compounds from wastewater. An important point it is to understand the role of applied treatment conditions (sludge retention time (SRT), biomass concentration, temperature, pH value, dominant class of micropollutants, etc.) for the efficiency of conventional treatment plants (CTP) and membrane bioreactors (MBR) concerning the removal of micropollutants such as pharmaceuticals, steroid- and xeno-estrogens. Nevertheless, the removal rates differ even from one compound to the other and are related to the physico-chemical characteristics of the xenobiotics.

Keywords

Organic micropollutants Sorption Biodegradation Wastewater Conventional wastewater treatment Membrane bioreactor 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thank the European Commission for funding AQUAbase Project under the Human Resources and Mobility Activity within the 6th Framework Programme under contract number MEST-CT-2004-505169.

References

  1. Abegglen C, Siegrist H (2006) Domestic wastewater treatment with a small-scale membrane bioreactor. Water Sci Technol 53(3):69–78Google Scholar
  2. Acher AJ (1985) Sunlight photooxidation of organic pollutants in wastewater. Water Sci Technol 17(4/5):623–632Google Scholar
  3. Advanced Chemistry Development ACD Labs http://www.acdlabs.com/download/publ/2004/cpsa04_pka.pdfGoogle Scholar
  4. Aerni HR, Kobler B, Rutishauser BV, Wettstein FE, Fischer R, Giger W, Hungerbuhler A, Marazuela MD, Peter A, Schonenberger R, Vogeli AC, Suter MJ, Eggen RI (2003) Combined biological and chemical assessment of estrogenic activities in wastewater treatment plant effluents. Anal Bioanal Chem 378(3):688–696Google Scholar
  5. Andersen H, Siegrist H, Halling-Sorensen B, Ternes TA (2003) Fate of estrogens in a municipal sewage treatment plant. Environ Sci Technol 37(18):4021–4026Google Scholar
  6. Andreozzi R, Cesaro R, Marotta R, Pirozzi F (2006) Evaluation of biodegradation kinetic constants for aromatic compounds by means of aerobic batch experiments. Chemosphere 62(9):1431–1436Google Scholar
  7. Bouillon RC, Miller WL (2005) Photodegradation of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) in natural waters: laboratory assessment of the nitrate-photolysis-induced DMS oxidation. Environ Sci Technol 39(24):9471–9477Google Scholar
  8. Braun P, Moeder M, Schrader S, Popp P, Kuschk P, Engewald W (2003) Trace analysis of technical nonylphenol, bisphenol A and 17a-ethinylestradiol in wastewater using solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 988(1):41–51Google Scholar
  9. Brindle K, Stephenson T (1996) The application of membrane biological reactors for the treatment of wastewaters. Biotechnol Bioeng 49:601–610Google Scholar
  10. Bringolf RB, Summerfelt RC (2003) Reduction of estrogenic activity of municipal wastewater by aerated lagoon treatment facilities. Environ Toxicol Chem 22(1):77–83Google Scholar
  11. Brunner PH, Capri S, Marcomini A, Giger W (1988) Occurrence and behaviour of alkylbenzenesulphates, linear alkylphenol mono- and nonylphenoldiethoxylates in sewage and sewage sludge treatment. Water Res 22(12):1465–1472Google Scholar
  12. Burgess RM, Pelletier MC, Gundersen JL, Perron MM, Ryba SA (2005) Effects of different forms of organic carbon on the partitioning and bioavailability of nonylphenol. Environ Toxicol Chem 24(7):1609–1617Google Scholar
  13. Byrns G (2001) The fate of xenobiotic organic compounds in wastewater treatment plants. Water Res 35(10):2523–2533Google Scholar
  14. Carballa M, Omil F, Lema JM, Llompart M, Garcia-Jares C, Rodriguez I, Gomez M, Ternes T (2004) Behaviour of pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and hormones in a sewage treatment plant. Water Res 38(12):2918–2926Google Scholar
  15. Carballa M, Omil F, Lema JM (2005) Removal of cosmetic ingredients and pharmaceuticals in sewage primary treatment. Water Res 39(17):4790–4796Google Scholar
  16. Cavret S, Feidt C (2005) Intestinal metabolism of PAH: in vitro demonstration and study of its impact on PAH transfer through the intestinal epithelium. Environ Res 98(1):22–32Google Scholar
  17. Chang IS, Judd SJ (2003) Domestic wastewater treatment by a submerged MBR (membrane bio-reactor) with enhanced air sparging. Water Sci Technol 47(12):149–154Google Scholar
  18. Chiou CT, McGroddy SE, Kile DE (1998) Partition characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on soils and sediments. Environ Sci Technol 32(2):264–269Google Scholar
  19. Cicek N, Franco JP, Suidan MT, Vincent U, Manem J (1999) Characterization and comparison of a membrane bioreactor and a conventional activated sludge system in the treatment of wastewater containing high-molecular weight compounds. Water Environ Res 71(1):64–70Google Scholar
  20. Cicek N, Macomer J, Davel J, Suidan MT, Audic J, Genestet P (2001) Effect of solids retention time on the performances and biological characteristics of a membrane bioreactor. Water Sci Technol 43(11):43–50Google Scholar
  21. Cirja M, Zuehlke S, Ivashechkin P, Schaeffer A, Corvini PFX (2006): Fate of a 14C-labeled nonylphenol isomer in a laboratory-scale membrane bioreactor. Environ Sci Technol 40(19):6131–6136Google Scholar
  22. Clara M, Strenn B, Kreuzinger N (2004a) Comparison of the behaviour of selected micropollutants in a membrane bioreactor and a conventional wastewater treatment plant. Water Sci Technol 50(5):29–36Google Scholar
  23. Clara M, Strenn B, Saracevic E, Kreuzinger N (2004b) Adsorption of bisphenol-A, 17b-estradiole and 17a-ethinylestradiole to sewage sludge. Chemosphere 56(9):843–851Google Scholar
  24. Clara M, Strenn B, Gans O, Martinez E, Kreuzinger N, Kroiss H (2005a) Removal of selected pharmaceuticals, fragrances and endocrine disrupting compounds in membrane bioreactor and conventional wastewater treatment plants. Water Res 39(19):4797–4807Google Scholar
  25. Clara M, Kreuzinger N, Strenn B, Gans O, Kroiss H (2005b) The solids retention time – a suitable design parameter to evaluate the capacity of wastewater treatment plants to remove micropollutants. Water Res 39(1):97–106Google Scholar
  26. Cleuvers M (2004) Mixture toxicity of the anti-inflammatory drugs diclofenac, ibuprofen, naproxen and acetylsalicylic acid. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 59(3):309–315Google Scholar
  27. Cleuvers M (2005) Initial risk assessment for three b-blockers found in the aquatic environment. Chemosphere 59(2):199–205Google Scholar
  28. Cornel P, Krause S (2006) Membrane bioreactors in industrial wastewater treatment-European experiences, examples and trends. Water Sci Technol 53(3):37–44Google Scholar
  29. Corvini PFX, Vinken R, Hommes G, Schmidt B, Dohmann M (2004) Degradation of the radioactive and non-labelled branched 4(3’,5’-dimethyl 3’-heptyl)-phenol nonylphenol isomer by Sphingomonas TTNP3. Biodegradation 15(1):9–18Google Scholar
  30. Corvini PFX, Schäffer A, Schlosser D (2006) Microbial degradation of nonylphenol and other alkylphenols-our evolving view. Appl Microb Biotechnol 72(2):223–243Google Scholar
  31. Cote P, Buisson H, Pound C, Arakaki G (1997) Immersed membrane activated sludge for the reuse of municipal wastewater. Desalination 113(2):189–196Google Scholar
  32. Daughton CG, Ternes TA (1999) Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the environment: agents of subtle change? Environ Health Perspect 107(6):907–938Google Scholar
  33. De Wever H, Van Roy S, Dotremont C, Miller J, Knepper T (2004) Comparison of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates removal in conventional activated sludge systems and membrane bioreactors. Water Sci Technol 50(5):219–225Google Scholar
  34. Del Vento S, Dachs J (2002) Prediction of uptake dynamics of persistent organic pollutants by bacteria and phytoplankton. Environ Toxicol Chem 21(10):2099–2107Google Scholar
  35. Desbrow C, Routledge EJ, Brighty GC, Sumpter JP, Waldock M (1998) Identification of estrogenic chemicals in STW effluent. 1. Chemical fractionation and in vitro biological screening. Environ Sci Technol 32(11):1549–1558Google Scholar
  36. Doi J, Marks KH, DeCarvalho AJ, McAvoy DC, Nielsen AM, Kravetz L, Cano ML (2002) Investigation of an onsite wastewater treatment system in sandy soil: sorption and biodegradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate. Environ Toxicol Chem 21(12):2617–2622Google Scholar
  37. Doll TE, Frimmel FH (2003) Fate of pharmaceuticals – photodegradation by simulated solar UV-light. Chemosphere 52(10):1757–1769Google Scholar
  38. Ehlers GA, Loibner AP (2006) Linking organic pollutant (bio)availability with geosorbent properties and biomimetic methodology: a review of geosorbent characterisation and (bio)availability prediction. Environ Pollut 141(3):494–512Google Scholar
  39. Eichhorn P, Lopez O, Barcelo D (2005) Application of liquid chromatography–electrospray–tandem mass spectrometry for the identification and characterisation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates and sulfophenyl carboxylates in sludge-amended soils. J Chromatogr A 1067(1–2):171–179Google Scholar
  40. EN-ISO-9887 (1994) Water quality – evaluation of the aerobic biodegradability of organic compounds in aqueous medium-semi-continuous activated sludge method (SCAS)Google Scholar
  41. Esperanza M, Suidan MT, Nishimura F, Wang ZM, Sorial GA (2004) Determination of sex hormones and nonylphenol ethoxylates in the aquous matrixes of two pilot-scale municipal wastewater treatment plants. Environ Sci Technol 38(11):3028–3035Google Scholar
  42. Fan XJ, Urbain V, Qian Y, Manem J, Ng WJ, Ong SL (2000) Nitrification in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) for wastewater treatment. Water Sci Technol 42(3–4):289–294Google Scholar
  43. Galassi S, Valescchi S, Tartari GA (1997) The distribution of PCB’s and chlorinated pesticides in two connected Himalayan lakes. Water Air Soil Pollut 99(1–4):717–725Google Scholar
  44. Galil NI, Sheidorf Ch, Stahl N, Tenenbaum A, Levinsky Y (2003) Membrane bioreactors for final treatment of wastewater. Water Sci Technol 48(8):103–110Google Scholar
  45. Garcia MT, Campos E, Dalmau M, Ribosa I, Sanchez-Leal J (2002) Structure activity relationships for association of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates with activated sludge. Chemosphere 49(3):279–286Google Scholar
  46. Giger W, Alder AC, Golet EM, Kohler H-PE, McArdell CS, Molnar E, Siegrist H, Suter MJ-F (2003) Occurrence and fate of antibiotics as trace contaminants in wastewaters, sewage sludges and surface waters. Chimia 59(9):485–491Google Scholar
  47. Golet EM, Xifra I, Siegrist H, Alder A, Giger W (2003) Environmental exposure assessment of fluorochinolone antibacterial agents from sewage to soils. Environ Sci Technol 37(15):3243–3249Google Scholar
  48. González S, Müller J, Petrovic M, Barcelo D, Knepper TP (2006) Biodegradation studies of selected priority acidic pesticides and diclofenac in different bioreactor. Environ Pollut 144(3):926–932Google Scholar
  49. Halling-Sørensen B (2000) Algal toxicity of antibacterial agents used in intensive farming. Chemosphere 40(7):731–739Google Scholar
  50. Hansch C et al (1995) Exploring QSAR. In: Heller SR (consult, ed) Hydrophobic, electronic, and steric constants. ACS Prof Ref Book. Amer Chem Soc, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  51. Howell JA, Arnot TC, Liu W (2003) Membrane bioreactors for treating waste streams. Ann NY Acad Sci 984:411–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Huang CH, Sedlak DL (2001) Analysis of estrogenic hormones in municipal wastewater effluent and surface water using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Environ Toxicol Chem 20(1):133–139Google Scholar
  53. Huber MM, Gobel A, Joss A, Hermann N, Loffler D, McArdell CS, Ried A, Siegrist H, Ternes TA, von Gunten U (2005) Oxidation of pharmaceuticals during ozonation of municipal wastewater effluents: a pilot study. Environ Sci Technol 39(11):4290–4299Google Scholar
  54. Iesce MR, della Greca M, Cermolal F, Rubino M, Isidori M, Pascarella L (2006) Transformation and ecotoxicity of carbamic pesticides in water. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 13(2):105–109Google Scholar
  55. Ilani T, Schulz E, Chefetz B (2005) Interactions of organic compounds with wastewater dissolved organic matter: role of hydrophobic fractions. Environ Qual 34(2):552–562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Ingerslev F, Toräng L, Loke ML, Halling-Sørensen B, Nyholmm N (2001) Primary biodegradation of veterinary antibiotics in aerobic and anaerobic surface water simulation systems. Chemosphere 44(4):865–872Google Scholar
  57. Ivashechkin P, Corvini PFX, Fahrbach M, Hollender J, Konietzko M, Meesters R, Schröder HF, Dohmann M (2004a) Comparison of the elimination of endocrine disrupters in conventional wastewater treatment plants and membrane bioreactors. In: Proceedings of the 2nd IWA leading-edge conference on water and wastewater treatment technologies – Prague. Part two: wastewater treatment. Water Environment Management Series (WEMS), IWA PublishingGoogle Scholar
  58. Ivashechkin P, Corvini PFX, Dohmann M (2004b) Behaviour of endocrine disrupting chemicals during the treatment of municipal sewage sludge. Water Sci Technol 50(5):133–140Google Scholar
  59. Jacobsen BN, Nyholm N, Pedersen BM, Poulsen O, Ostfeldt P (1993) Removal of organic micropollutants in laboratory activated sludge reactors under various operating conditions: sorption. Water Res 27(10):1505–1510Google Scholar
  60. Jeannot R, Sabik H, Sauvard E, Genin E (2000) Application of liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry combined with photodiode array detection and tandem mass spectrometry for monitoring pesticides in surface waters. J Chromatogr A 879(1):51–71Google Scholar
  61. Jensen RL, Schaefer AI (2001) Adsorption of estrone and 17β-estradiol by particulates- activated sludge, bentonite, hemalite and cellulose. In: Recent advances in water recycling technologies workshop, Brisbane, pp 93–102, ISBN 0 7334 1858 9, 26 November 2001Google Scholar
  62. Jobling S, Nolan M, Tyler CR, Brighty GC, Sumpter JP (1998) Widespread sexual disruption in wild fish. Environ Sci Technol 32(17):2498–2506Google Scholar
  63. Johnson AC, Williams RJ (2004) A model to estimate influent and effluent concentrations of estradiol, estrone, and ethinylestradiol at sewage treatment works. Environ Sci Technol 38(13):3649–3658Google Scholar
  64. Johnson AC, Aerni HR, Gerritsen A, Gibert M, Giger M, Hylland K, Juergens M, Nakari T, Pickering A, Suter MJF, Svenson A, Wettstein FE (2005) Comparing steroid estrogen, and nonylphenol content across a range of European sewage plants with different treatment and management practices. Water Res 39(1):47–58Google Scholar
  65. Joss A, Andersen H, Ternes T, Richle RP, Siegrist H (2004) Removal of estrogens in municipal wastewater treatment under aerobic conditions: consequences for plant optimization. Environ Sci Technol 38(11):3047–3055Google Scholar
  66. Joss A, Keller E, Alder AC, Goebel A, McArdell CS, Ternes T, Siegrist H (2005) Removal of pharmaceuticals and fragrances in biological wastewater treatment. Water Res 39(14):3139–3152Google Scholar
  67. Junker T, Alexy R, Knacker T, Kümmerer K (2006) Biodegradability of 14C-labeled antibiotics in a modified laboratory scale sewage treatment plant at environmentally relevant concentrations. Environ Sci Technol 40(1):318–324Google Scholar
  68. Katsoyinnis A, Samara C (2005) Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the conventional activated sludge treatment process: fate and mass balance. Environ Res 97(3):245–257Google Scholar
  69. Keller H, Xia K, Bhandari A (2003) Occurrence and degradation of estrogenic nonylphenol and precursors in northeast Kansas wastewater treatment plants. Pract Period Haz Toxic Radioactive Waste Mgmt 7(4):203–213Google Scholar
  70. Kikuta T (2004) Modelling of degradation of organic micropollutants in activated sludge process focusing on partitioning between water and sludge phases. Master thesis, Institute of Technology, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tokyo, JapanGoogle Scholar
  71. Kim S, Eichhorn P, Jensen JN, Weber AS, Aga DS (2005) Removal of antibiotics in wastewater: effect of hydraulic and solid retention times on the fate of tetreacycline in the activated sludge process. Environ Sci Technol 39(15):5816–5823Google Scholar
  72. Kimura K, Hara H, Watanabe Y (2005) Removal of pharmaceutical compounds by submerged membrane bioreactors (MBR). Desalination 178(1–3):135–140Google Scholar
  73. Kloepfer A, Gnirss R, Jekel M, Reemtsma T (2004a) Occurrence of benzothiazoles in municipal wastewater and their fate in biological treatment. Water Sci Technol 50(5):203–238Google Scholar
  74. Kloepfer A, Jekel M, Reemtsma T (2004b) Determination of benzothiazoles in complex aqueous samples by liquid chromatography-mass spectometry. J Chromatogr A 1058(1–2):81–88Google Scholar
  75. Kolpin DW, Furlong ET, Meyer MT, Thurman EM, Zaugg SD, Barber LB, Buxton HT (2002) Pharmaceuticals, hormones and other organic wastewater contaminants in U.S. streams, 1999–2000: a national reconnaisance. Environ Sci Technol 36(6):1202–1211Google Scholar
  76. Körner W, Bolz U, Süßmuth W, Hiller G, Schuller W, Hanf V, Hagenmaier H (2000) Input/output balance of estrogenic active compounds in a major municipal sewage plant in Germany. Chemosphere 40(9–11):1131–1142Google Scholar
  77. Körner W, Bolz U, Triebskorn R, Schwaiger J, Negele RD, Hagenmaier MA (2001) Steroid analysis and xenosteroid potentials in two small streams in Southwest Germany. J Aquat Ecosyst Stress Recov 8(3/4):215–229Google Scholar
  78. Kulshrestha P, Giese RF Jr, Aga DS (2004) Investigating the molecular interactions of oxytetracycline in clay and organic matter: insights on factors affecting its mobility in soil. Environ Sci Technol 38:4097–4105Google Scholar
  79. Lalah JO, Schramm KW, Henkelmann B, Lenoir D, Behechti A, Guenther K, Kettrup A (2003) The dissipation, distribution and fate of a branched 14C-nonylphenol isomer in lake water/sediment system. Environ Pollut 122(2):195–203Google Scholar
  80. LaPara TM, Nakatsu CH, Pantea LM, Alleman JE (2001) Aerobic biological treatment of a pharmaceutical wastewater: effect of temperature on cod removal and bacterial community development. Water Res 35(18):4417–4425Google Scholar
  81. Layton AC, Gregory BW, Seward JR, Schultz TW, Sayler GS (2000) Mineralization of steroidal hormones by biosolids in wastewater treatment systems in Tenessee U.S.A. Environ Sci Technol 34(18):3925–3931Google Scholar
  82. Lesjean B, Gnirss R, Buisson H, Keller S, Tazi-Pain A, Luck F (2005) Outcomes of a 2-year investigation on enhanced biological nutrients removal and trace pollutants elimination in membrane bioreactor (MBR). Water Sci Technol 52(10–11):453–460Google Scholar
  83. Li HQ, Jiku F, Schröder HF (2000) Assessment of the pollutant elimination efficiency by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and – tandem mass spectrometry – comparison of conventional and membrane assisted biological wastewater treatment processes. J Chromatogr A 889(1–2):155–176Google Scholar
  84. Liebig M, Egeler P, Oehlmann J, Knacker T (2005) Bioaccumulation of C-17α-ethinylestradiol by the aquatic oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus in spiked artificial sediment. Chemosphere 59(2):271–280Google Scholar
  85. Lindberg RH, Olofsson U, Randahl P, Johansson M, Tyaklind M, Andersson BAV (2006) Behaviour of fluoroquinolones and trimethoprim during mechanical, chemical and activated sludge treatment of sewage and digestion of sludge. Environ Sci Technol 40(3):1042–1048Google Scholar
  86. Lion LW, Stauffer TB, MacIntyre WG (1990) Sorption of hydrophobic compounds on aquifer materials; analysis methods and the effect of organic carbon. J Contam Hydrol 5:215–234Google Scholar
  87. Luthje K, Hyotylainen T, Riekkola ML (2004) On-line coupling of microporous membrane liquid-liquid extraction and gas chromatography in the analysis of organic pollutants in water. Anal Bioanal Chem 378(8):1991–1998Google Scholar
  88. Ma M, Li J, Wang Z (2005) Assessing the detoxication efficiencies of wastewater treatment processes using a battery of bioassays/biomarkers. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 49(4):480–487Google Scholar
  89. Marcomini A, Capri S, Giger W (1987) Determination of linear alkylbenzenesulphonates, alkylphenol polyethoxylates and nonylphenol in waste water by high-performance liquid chromatography after enrichment on octadecylsilica. J Chromatogr A 403:243–252Google Scholar
  90. Matsumura F (1989) Biotic degradation of pollutants ecotoxicology and climate, SCOPE. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  91. Matsunaga T, Ueki F, Obata K, Tajima H, Tanaka T, Takeyama H, Goda Y, Fujimoto S (2003) Fully automated immunoassay system of endocrine disrupting chemicals using monoclonal antibodies chemically conjugated to bacterial magnetic particles. Anal Chem Acta 475(1–2):75–83Google Scholar
  92. Metcalf L, Eddy HP (2003) Wastewater engineering – treatment and reuse, 4th edn. Handbook. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  93. Moeder M, Martin C, Harynuk J, Górecki T, Vinken, Corvini PFX (2006) Isomeric 4-nonylphenol structures related from GC-MS-MS combined with cluster analysis. J Chromatogr A 1102(1–2):245–255Google Scholar
  94. Nakada N, Tanishima T, Shinohara H, Kiri K, Takada H (2006) Pharmaceutical chemicals and endocrine disrupters in municipal wastewater in Tokyo and their removal during activated sludge treatment. Water Res 40(17):3297–3303Google Scholar
  95. Oh SM, Park K, Chung KH (2006) Combination of in vitro bioassays encompassing different mechanisms to determine the endocrine-disrupting effects of river water. Sci Total. Environ 354(2–3):252–264Google Scholar
  96. Perez S, Eichhorn P, Aga DS (2005) Evaluating the biodegradability of sulphamethazine, sulphamethoxazole and trimethoprim at different stages of sewage treatment. Environ Toxicol Chem 24(6):1361–1367Google Scholar
  97. Pollice A, Laera G (2005) Effects of complete sludge retention on biomass build-up in a membrane bioreactor. Water Sci Technol 52(10–11):369–375Google Scholar
  98. Price PB, Sowers T (2004) Temperature dependence of metabolic rates for microbial growth, maintenance, and survival. Microbiology 101(13):4631–4636Google Scholar
  99. Purdom CE, Hardiman PA, Bye VJ, Eno NC, Tyler CR, Sumpter JP (1994) Estrogenic effects of effluents from sewage treatment works. Chem Ecol 8:275–285Google Scholar
  100. Quintana JB, Weiss S, Reemtsma T (2005) Pathways and metabolites of microbial degradation of selected acidic pharmaceutical and their occurrence in municipal wastewater treated by a membrane bioreactor. Water Res 39(12):2654–2664Google Scholar
  101. Rajapakse N, Silva E, Kortenkamp A (2002) Combining xenoestrogens at levels below individual no-observed-effect concentrations dramatically enhances steroid hormone action. Environ Health Perspect 110(9):917–921CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Reemtsma T, Zywicki B, Stueber M, Kloepfer A, Ekel M (2002) Removal of sulphur-organic polar micropollutants in a membrane bioreactor treating industrial wastewater. Environ Sci Technol 36(5):1102–1106Google Scholar
  103. Robinson AA, Belden JB, Lydy MJ (2005) Toxicity of fluoroquinolone antibiotics to aquatic organisms. Environ Toxicol Chem 24(2):423–430Google Scholar
  104. Rogers HR (1996) Sources, behaviour and fate of organic contaminants during sewage treatment and sewage sludges. Sci Total Environ 185(1–3):3–26Google Scholar
  105. Rutherford DW, Chiou CT, Kile DE (1992) Influence of soil organic matter composition on the partition of organic compounds. Environ Sci Technol 26(2):336–340Google Scholar
  106. Rychlowska J, Zgola A, Grzeskowiak T, Lukaszewski Z (2003) Isolation of poly(propylene glycol)s from water for quantitative analysis by reversed-phase liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr A 1021(1–2):11–17Google Scholar
  107. Siegrist H, Joss A, Alder A, McArdell-Burgisser C, Goebel A, Keller E (2004) Micropollutants – new challenge in wastewater disposal? EAWAG News 57:7–10Google Scholar
  108. Sithole BB, Guy RD (1987) Models for tetracycline in aquatic environments: 1. Interaction with bentonite and clay systems. Water Air Soil Pollut 32:303–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Shull JD, Pennington KL (1993) Changes in population density elicit quantitative and qualitative changes in the estrogen receptor in intact GH[4]C[1] pituitary tumor cells. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 44(1):53–60Google Scholar
  110. Soares A, Murto M, Guieysse B, Mattiasson B (2006) Biodegradation of nonylphenol in a continous bioreactor at low temperatures and effects on the microbial population. Appl Microbial Biotechnol 69(5):597–606Google Scholar
  111. Soto AM, Sonnenschein C, Chung LK, Fernandez MF, Olea N, Olea F (1995) The E-SCREEN assay as a tool to identify estrogens: an update on estrogenic environmental pollutants. Environ Health Perspect 103(7):113–123Google Scholar
  112. Spain JC, Pritchard PH, Bourquin AW (1980) Effects of adaptation on biodegradation rates in sediment/water cores from estuarine and freshwater environments. Appl Environ Microbiol 40(4):726–734Google Scholar
  113. Stangroom SJ, Collins CD, Lester JN (2000) Abiotic behaviour of organic micropollutants in soils and the aquatic environment. A review: 2 transformations. Environ Technol 21(8):865–882CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Stehmann A, Schröder HF (2004) Derivatisation of 4-nonylphenol and bisphenol A with halogenated anhydrides. Water Sci Technol 50(5):115–118Google Scholar
  115. Stenstrom MK, Cardinal L, Libra L (1989) Treatment of hazardous substances in wastewater treatment plants. Environ Progr 8(2):107–112Google Scholar
  116. Stephenson T, Judd S, Jefferson B, Brindle K (2000) Membrane bioreactors for wastewater treatment. IWA Publishing, UKGoogle Scholar
  117. Takacsnovak K, Jozan M, Hermecz I, Szasz G (1992) Lipophilicity of antibacterial fluoroquinolones. Int J Pharm 79:89–96Google Scholar
  118. Tanghe T, Devriese G, Verstratate W (1998) Nonylphenol degradation in lab scale activated sludge units is temperature dependent. Water Res 32(10):2889–2896Google Scholar
  119. ten Hulscher ThEM, Cornelissen G (1996) Effect of temperature on sorption equilibrium and sorption kinetics of organic micropollutants – a review. Chemosphere 32(4):609–626Google Scholar
  120. Ternes TA (1998) Occurrence of drugs in German sewage treatment plants and rivers. Water Res 32(11):3245–3260Google Scholar
  121. Ternes TA, Stumpf M, Mueller J, Haberer K, Wilken RD, Servos M (1999) Behavior and occurrence of estrogens in municipal sewage treatment plants – I. Investigations in Germany, Canada and Brazil. Sci Total Environ 225:81–90Google Scholar
  122. Ternes T, Joss A, Siegrist H (2004) Scrutinizing pharmaceuticals and personal care products in wastewater treatment. Environ Sci Technol 38(20):392–399Google Scholar
  123. Terzic S, Matosic M, Ahel M, Mijatovic I (2005) Elimination of aromatic surfactants from municipal wastewaters: comparison of conventional activated sludge treatment and membrane biological reactor. Water Sci Technol 51(8):447–453Google Scholar
  124. Urase T, Kagawa C, Kikuta T (2005) Factors affecting removal of pharmaceutical substances and estrogens in membrane separation bioreactors. Desalination 178(1–3):107–113Google Scholar
  125. Vader S, van Ginkel CG, Sperling FMGM, de Jong J, de Boer W, de Graaf JS, van der Most M, Stokman PGW (2000) Degradation of ethinyl estradiol by nitrifying activated sludge. Chemosphere 41(8):1239–1243Google Scholar
  126. van der Meer JR (2006) Environmental pollution promotes selection of microbial degradation pathways. Front Ecol Environ 4(1):35–42Google Scholar
  127. Vieno NM, Tuhkanen T, Kronberg L (2005) Seasonal variation in the occurrence of pharmaceuticals in effluents from a sewage treatment plant and in the recipient water. Environ Sci Technol 39(21):8220–8226Google Scholar
  128. Vinken R, Höllrigl-Rosta A, Schmidt B, Schäffer A, Corvini PFX (2004) Bioavailability of a nonylphenol isomer in dependence on the association to dissolved humic substances. Water Sci Technol 50(5):277–283Google Scholar
  129. Wallberg P, Jonsson PR, Andersson A (2001) Trophic transfer and passive uptake of a polychlorinated biphenyl in experimental marine microbial communities. Environ Toxicol Chem 20(10):2158–2164Google Scholar
  130. Weber S, Leuschner P, Kämpfer P, Dott W, Hollender J (2005) Degradation of estradiol and ethinyl estradiol by activated sludge and by a defined mixed culture. Appl Microb Biotechnol 67(1):106–112Google Scholar
  131. Winnen H, Suidan MT, Scarpino P, Wrenn B, Cicek N, Urbain V, Manem J (1996) Effectiveness of he membrane bioreactor in the biodegradation of high molecular weight compounds. Water Sci Technol 34(9):197–203Google Scholar
  132. Wintgens T, Gallenkemper M, Melin T (2003) Occurrence and removal of endocrine disrupters in landfill leachate treatment plants. Water Sci Technol 48(3):127–134Google Scholar
  133. Yamamoto H, Morita M, Liljestrand HM (2003) Estimated fate of selected endocrine disruptors in the aquatic environment and the biological treatment processes: sorption by dissolved organic matter and synthetic membrane vesicles. In: Fourth specialized conference on assessment and control of hazardous substances in water. International Water Association (IWA), Aachen, Germany, 14–17 September 2003Google Scholar
  134. Yoon Y, Westerhoff P, Yoon J, Snyder SA (2004) Removal of 17β-estradiol and fluoranthene by nanofiltration and ultrafiltration. J Environ Eng 130(12):1460–1467Google Scholar
  135. Yu Z, Huang W (2005) Competitive sorption between 17alpha-ethinyl estradiol and naphthalene/phenanthrene by sediments. Environ Sci Technol 39(13):4878–4885Google Scholar
  136. Zhang B, Yamamoto K, Ohgaki S, Kamiko N (1997) Floc size distribution and bacterial activities in membrane separation activated sludge processes for small-scale wastewater treatment/reclamation. Water Sci Technol 35(6):37–44Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Magdalena Cirja
    • 1
  • Pavel Ivashechkin
    • 2
  • Andreas Schäffer
    • 1
    • 3
  • Philippe F. X. Corvini
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Institute of Environmental Research – Environmental Biology and Chemodynamics (BioV)RWTH Aachen UniversityAachenGermany
  2. 2.Institute of Environmental Engineering (ISA)RWTH Aachen UniversityAachenGermany
  3. 3.IME Fraunhofer InstituteSchmallenbergGermany
  4. 4.Institute for Ecopreneurship, School of Life SciencesUniversity of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland (FHNW)MuttenzSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations