Olive oil history, production and by-product management

  • Iosif Emmanouil KapellakisEmail author
  • Konstantinos P. Tsagarakis
  • John C. Crowther
Review Paper


In this review paper, the history of the olive tree and the development of the main olive oil extraction systems employed in the past are presented. Furthermore, the management techniques employed from antiquity until today for the treatment of olive mill wastewater (OMW), which constitutes the most important by-product of olive oil production, are addressed and compared. Reference is also made to global olive oil production, the environmental impacts of the uncontrolled disposal of OMW, and to the legal framework concerning its management in the main olive oil producing countries. Other by-products of olive processing are also discussed.


Conventional treatment processes Legal framework Natural treatment Olive mill history Olive mill wastewater history Olive oil production 



Figures are courtesy of the authors, unless indicated. The second author was sponsored by the Greek National Scholarships Institute, when this paper was under preparation.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Iosif Emmanouil Kapellakis
    • 1
    Email author
  • Konstantinos P. Tsagarakis
    • 2
  • John C. Crowther
    • 3
  1. 1.National Agricultural Research FoundationIraklioGreece
  2. 2.Department of Environmental EngineeringTechnical University of CreteChaniaGreece
  3. 3.School of the Built and Natural EnvironmentGlasgow Caledonian UniversityGlasgowUK

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