Equipment used for testing anaerobic biodegradability and activity

Article

Abstract

Recently there has been a growing demand for information on the biodegradability and microbial toxicity of xenobiotic compounds. The environmental fate and effect of these chemicals in aerobic and anaerobic conditions has been extensively studied using a variety of different methods. This paper reviews the different protocols, equipment and instruments used in anaerobic biodegradation and activity tests, including the more sophisticated automated techniques recently developed. The different systems for detecting biogas production are given particular attention. As well as gasometric methods, the different instrumental techniques used to follow the fate of compounds under anaerobic conditions, via analysis of substrate consumption and product formation are evaluated.

Keywords

activity anaerobic biodegradability equipment instruments 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adrian, NR, Chow, T 2001Identification of hydroxylamino-dinitroso-1,3,5-triazine as a transient intermediate formed during the anaerobic biodegradation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazineEnviron. Toxicol. Chem.2018741877Google Scholar
  2. Angelidaki, I, Schmidt, JE, Ellegaard, L, Ahring, BK 1998An automatic system for simultaneous monitoring of gas evolution in multiple closed vesselsJ. Microbiol. Meth.3393100Google Scholar
  3. Battersby, NS, Wilson, V 1988Evaluation of a serum bottle technique for assessing the anaerobic biodegradability of organic chemicals under methanogenic conditionsChemosphere1724412460Google Scholar
  4. Beaubien, A, Jolicoeur, C, Alary, JF 1988Automated high sensitivity gas metering system for biological processesBiotechnol. Bioeng.32105109Google Scholar
  5. Birch, RR, Biver, C, Campagna, R, Gledhill, WE, Pagg, U, Steber, J, Reust, H, Bontinck, WJ 1989Screening of chemicals for anaerobic biodegradabilityChemosphere1915271550Google Scholar
  6. Buswell, AM, Mueller, HF 1952Mechanism of fermentationInd. Eng. Chem.4424412460Google Scholar
  7. Cohen, A 1992Effects of some industrial-chemicals on anaerobic activity measured by Sequential Automated Methanometry (SAM)Water Sci. Technol.251120Google Scholar
  8. Concannon F, Reynolds PJ, Henningan A & Colleran E (1988) Development of a computerised continuous assay for specific methanogenic activity measurement. In: Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Anaerobic Digestion: Poster papers, A. Tilche and A. Rozzi (Eds), Monduzzi Editore, Bologna, Italy. pp. 177–181.Google Scholar
  9. Council Directive (76/464)/EEC of May 1976 on pollution caused by certain dangerous substances discharged into aquatic environment of the Community. Official Journal of the European Communities L 129 pp. 0023–0029Google Scholar
  10. Council Directive 96/61/EC of 24 September 1996 concerning integrated pollution prevention and control. Official Journal of the European Communities L 257, 10/10/1996 pp. 0026–0040Google Scholar
  11. Delafontaine, MJ, Hutschemakers, J, Naveau, HP, Nyns, EJ 1982Improved method for quantitative evaluation of the potential for methane production of mixed liquors through the determination of the content of co-enzyme F420Biomass2115125Google Scholar
  12. Directive (2000/60/EC) of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2000 establishing a framework for Community action in the field of water policy. Official Journal of the European Communities L 327, pp. 001–0072Google Scholar
  13. Dolfing, J, Bloeman, WGBM 1985Activity measurements as a tool to characterise the microbial composition of methanogenic environmentsJ. Microbiol. Methods4112Google Scholar
  14. Dupla, M, Conte, T, Bouvier, JC, Bernet, N, Steyer, JP 2004Dynamic evaluation of a fixed bed anaerobic digestion process in response to organic overloads and toxicant shockloadsWater Sci. Technol.496168Google Scholar
  15. ECETOC, (1988) European Chemical Industry Ecology and Toxicology Centre: Evaluation of anaerobic biodegradation. Technical Report No28, Brussels.Google Scholar
  16. Garcia, MT, Campos, E, Sanchez-Leal, J, Riboa, I 2000Anaerobic degradation and toxicity of commercial cationic surfactants in anaerobic screening testsChemosphere41705710Google Scholar
  17. Garcia, MT, Campos, E, Sanchez-Leal, J, Riboa, I 1999Effect of alkyl chain length on the anaerobic biodegradability and toxicity of quaternary ammonium based surfactantsChemosphere38705710Google Scholar
  18. Glauser, M, Jenni, B, Aragno, M 1984An inexpensive, automatic gas meter for laboratory-scale methane digesters and other gas-evolving systemsJ. Microbiol. Methods2159164Google Scholar
  19. Gledhill, WE 1979Proposed standard practice for determination of the anaerobic biodegradability organic chemicals. Working Document draft 2 No. 35–24American Society for Testing MaterialsPhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  20. Gorris, LGM, Kok, TM, Kroon, BM, Drift, C, Vogels, GD 1988Relationship between methanogenic co-factor content and maximum specific methanogenic activity of anaerobic granular sludgesApplied. Environ. Microbiol.5411261130Google Scholar
  21. Guwy, AJ, Hawkes, DL, Hawkes, FR 1995On-line low flow high-precision gas metering systemsWater Research,29977979Google Scholar
  22. Gujer, W, Zehnder, AJB 1983Conversion processes in anaerobic digestionWater. Sci. Technol.15127167Google Scholar
  23. Guwy, AJ, Hawkes, FR, Hawkes, DL, Rozzi, AG 1997Hydrogen Production In a High Rate Fluidised Bed Anaerobic DigesterWater Res.3112911298Google Scholar
  24. Gwatkin, P, Drewill-Smith, D, Lane, AG 1986An inexpensive electronic gas flow meter for use with small anaerobic digestersEnviron. Technol. Lett.7565570Google Scholar
  25. Healy, J, Young, LY 1979Anaerobic biodegradation of eleven aromatic compounds to methaneApplied Environ. Microbiol.388489Google Scholar
  26. HMSO (1988) Methods for the examination of waters and associated materials: The Assessment of Biodegradability in Anaerobic Sludges, pp. 1–19Google Scholar
  27. Huber, M, Meyer, U, Rys, P 2000Biodegradation mechanisms of linear alcohol ethoxylates under anaerobic conditionsEnviron. Sci. Technol.3417371741Google Scholar
  28. Ince, O, Anderson, GK, Kasapgil, B 1995Control of organic loading rate using the specific methanogenic activity test during start-up of an anaerobic-digestion systemWater Res.29349355Google Scholar
  29. ISO 11734 International Standard (First Edition 15-12-1995) Water quality-evaluation of the “ultimate” anaerobic biodegradability of organic compounds in digested sludge-Method by measurement of the biogas productionGoogle Scholar
  30. ISO/DIS 14853 (1999) Determination of the ultimate anaerobic biodegradability of plastic materials in an aqueous system-Method by measurement of biogas productionGoogle Scholar
  31. James, A, Chernicharo, CAL, Campos, CMM 1990The development of a new methodology for the assessment of specific methanogenic activityWater Res.24813825Google Scholar
  32. Johnson, LD, Young, JC 1983Inhibition of anerobic digestion by organic priority pollutants1441Journal Water Pollution Control Federation 55 (12)Google Scholar
  33. Jörg R. (2000) Anaerobe Abbaubarkeit von Kunststoffen in aquatischen. Screening-Tests mit dem Methanomat, Stutt. Ber. Abfall. Wirtsch., Bd. 76, Bielefeld: E. Schmidt.Google Scholar
  34. Kugelman, IJ, McCarty, PL 1965Cation toxicity and stimulation in waste treatmentJ. Water Control Federation3797Google Scholar
  35. Kuss ML & Young JC (1992) Method and apparatus for measuring gas flow using bubble volume. U.S. Patent No. 5,092,181 (March 1992)Google Scholar
  36. McCarty, PL 1964Anaerobic Waste Treatment Fundamentals Part 1Public WorksNew York107Google Scholar
  37. Miller, TL, Wolin, MJ 1974A serum bottle modification of the Hungate techniqu for cultivating obligate anaerobesApplied Microbiology.27985987Google Scholar
  38. Moletta, R, Albagnac, G 1982A gas meter for low rates of flow: application to the methane fermentationBiotechnol. Lett.4319322Google Scholar
  39. Mosey, FE, Fernandez, XA 1989Patterns of hydrogen in biogas from the anaerobic digestion of milk-sugarsWater. Sci. Technol.21 4/5187196Google Scholar
  40. Mota, M, Besle, P, Strehaiano, P, Goma, G 1987A simple device for fed-batch control in alcoholic fermentationBiotechnol. Bioeng.29775777Google Scholar
  41. O’Flaherty, V, Lens, P, Leahy, B, Colleran, E 1988Long-term competition between sulphate-reducing and methane-producing bacteria during full-scale anaerobic treatment of citric acid production wastewaterWater Res.32815825Google Scholar
  42. Owen, WF, Stuckey, DC, Healy, JB, Young, LY, McCarty, PL 1979Bioassay for monitoring biochemical methane potential and anaerobic toxicityWater Res.13485492Google Scholar
  43. Premier, GC, Dinsdale, R, Guwy, AJ, Hawkes, FR, Hawkes, DL, Wilcox, SJ 1997Simple Black Box Models Predicting Potential Control Parameters During Disturbances To a Fluidised Bed Anaerobic ReactorWater Sci. Technol.36229237Google Scholar
  44. Rozzi, A, Castellazzi, L, Speece, RE 2002Acetoclastic methanogenic activity measurement by a titration bioassayBiotechnol. Bioeng.772026Google Scholar
  45. Rozzi, A, Remigi, E, Buckley, C 2000Methanogenic activity measurements by the MAIA biosensor: instructions guideWater Sci. Technol.44287294Google Scholar
  46. Shelton, DR, Tiedje, JM 1984General method for determining anaerobic biodegradation potentialApplied and Environ. Microbiol.47850857Google Scholar
  47. Stergar, V, Koncan, JZ 2002The determination of anaerobic biodegradability of pharmaceutical waste using advanced bioassay techniqueChem. Biochem. Eng. Quart.161724Google Scholar
  48. Steyer, JP, Bouvier, JC, Conte, T, Gras, P, Harmand, J, Delgenes, JP 2002On-line measurements of COD, TOC, VFA, total and partial alkalinity in anaerobic digestion processes using infra-red spectrometryWater Sci. Technol.45133138Google Scholar
  49. Umbreit, WW, Burris, RH, Stayffer, JF 1964Manometric TechniquesBurgessBerks4th edGoogle Scholar
  50. Veiga, MC, Soto, M, Mendez, R, Lema, JM 1990A new device for measurement and control of gas production by bench scale anaerobic digestersWater Res.2415511554Google Scholar
  51. Valke, D, Verstraete, W 1983A practical method to estimate the aceoclastic methanogenic biomass in anaerobic sludgesJ. Water Pollution Control Federation5511911195Google Scholar
  52. Berg, L, Lentz, C, Athey, R, Rooke, E 1974Assessment of methanogenic activity in anaerobic digestion: Apparatus and methodBiotechnol. Bioeng.1614591469Google Scholar
  53. Young JC, Kuss ML & Nelson MA (1991) Use of anaerobic respirometers for measuring gas production in toxicity and treatability tests. 84th Annual Meeting of the Air and Waste Management Association Vancouver, B.C. June 16–21.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Wastewater Treatment Unit, School of Applied SciencesUniversity of GlamorganPontypridd, Mid GlamorganUK

Personalised recommendations