The vitamin D deficiency pandemic: Approaches for diagnosis, treatment and prevention

  • Michael F. Holick


Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency is a global health issue that afflicts more than one billion children and adults worldwide. The consequences of vitamin D deficiency cannot be under estimated. There has been an association of vitamin D deficiency with a myriad of acute and chronic illnesses including preeclampsia, childhood dental caries, periodontitis, autoimmune disorders, infectious diseases, cardiovascular disease, deadly cancers, type 2 diabetes and neurological disorders. This review is to put into perspective the controversy surrounding the definition for vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency as well as providing guidance for how to treat and prevent vitamin D deficiency.


Vitamin D deficiency Vitamin D insufficiency Sunlight Rickets Vitamin D2 Vitamin D3 25-hydroxyvitamin D Vitamin D toxicity 


Compliance with ethical standards

This is a review and therefore there are no issues regarding compliance and ethical standards.

Conflict of interest

The author declares that he is a consultant for Quest Diagnostics, Ontometrics Inc. and is on speaker’s Bureau for Sanofi Inc.


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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Endocrinology, Nutrition and Diabetes, Department of MedicineBoston University Medical CenterBostonUSA

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