Vitamin D and diabetes mellitus: Causal or casual association?

  • M. Grammatiki
  • E. Rapti
  • S. Karras
  • R. A. Ajjan
  • Kalliopi Kotsa
Article

Abstract

The incidence of both type 2 and type 1 diabetes mellitus has been increasing worldwide. Vitamin D deficiency, or the awareness of its prevalence, has also been increasing. Vitamin D may have a role in the pathogenic mechanisms predisposing to type 2 diabetes by modulating insulin resistance and/or pancreatic β-cell function. Vitamin D status or elements involved in its activation or transport may also be involved in the development of type 1 diabetes mellitus through immunomodulatory role . Based on these observations a potential association between vitamin D and diabetes has been hypothesized. In this review we discuss up to date evidence linking vitamin D with the development of diabetes. Moreover, the role of vitamin D supplementation in the prevention of both types of diabetes is analysed together with its role in improving glycemic control in diabetic patients. We also address the potential role of vitamin D deficiency in the development of macro- and microvascular complications in diabetes. Finally, we provide recommendation for Vitamin D therapy in diabetes in view of current evidence and highlight areas for potential future research in this area.

Keywords

Vitamin D 25-hydroxyvitamin D Diabetes mellitus Type 1 diabetes Type 2 diabetes Diabetes complications 

Abbreviations

T2DM

Type 2 diabetes mellitus

T1DM

Type 1 diabetes mellitus

VDR

Vitamin D receptor

PTH

Parathyroid hormone

GLUT-4

Glucose transporter-4

PPAR

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor

25(OH)D

25-hydroxyvitamin D

OGTT

Oral glucose tolerance test

HbA1c

Glycated hemoglobin

VDBP

Vitamin D binding protein

NOD mice

Non obese diabetic mice

CRF

Chronic renal failure

RAAS

Rennin-angiotensin-aldosterone system

GFR

Glomerular filtration rate

DN

Diabetic neuropathy

DR

Diabetic retinopathy

CHD

Coronary heart disease

CVD

Cardiovascular disease

IMT

Intima-media thickness

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism – Diabetes Center, 1st Clinic of Internal MedicineAHEPA University HospitalThessalonikiGreece
  2. 2.Division of Cardiovascular and Diabetes Research, Leeds Institute for Cardiovascular and Metabolic MedicineUniversity of Leeds Ringgold Standard InstitutionLeedsUK
  3. 3.Aristotle UniversityThessalonikiGreece

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