Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders

, Volume 15, Issue 3, pp 181–187 | Cite as

Effects of GLP-1 on appetite and weight

  • Meera Shah
  • Adrian VellaEmail author


Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is a cleavage product of the pre-proglucagon gene which is expressed in the α-cells of the pancreas, the L-cells of the intestine, and neurons located in the caudal brainstem and hypothalamus. GLP-1 is of relevance to appetite and weight maintenance because it has actions on the gastrointestinal tract as well as the direct regulation of appetite. It delays gastric emptying and gut motility in humans. In addition, interventricular injections of GLP-1 inhibit food intake, independent of the presence of food in the stomach or gastric emptying. Peripherally administered GLP-1 also affects the central regulation of feeding. It is therefore the synergistic actions of GLP-1 in the gut and brain, acting on both central and peripheral receptors that seem responsible for the effects of the hormone on satiety.


Appetite Satiety Gastric accommodation Gastric emptying Bariatric surgery 



The authors acknowledge the support of the Mayo Clinic General Clinical Research Center (DK TR000135). Dr. Vella is supported by DK78646 and by DK82396.

Conflict of interest

Dr. Vella has received research grants from Merck and Daiichi-Sankyo. He is an investigator in multicenter studies sponsored by Novartis and GI dynamics, respectively. He has consulted for XOMA, Sanofi-Aventis, Novartis and Bristol-Myers Squibb. Dr. Shah has no relevant disclosures.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Endocrinology & Metabolism Mayo ClinicRochesterUSA

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