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Metabolic function of the CTRP family of hormones

  • Marcus M. Seldin
  • Stefanie Y. Tan
  • G. William Wong
Article

Abstract

Maintaining proper energy balance in mammals entails intimate crosstalk between various tissues and organs. These inter-organ communications are mediated, to a great extent, by secreted hormones that circulate in blood. Regulation of the complex metabolic networks by secreted hormones (e.g., insulin, glucagon, leptin, adiponectin, FGF21) constitutes an important mechanism governing the integrated control of whole-body metabolism. Disruption of hormone-mediated metabolic circuits frequently results in dysregulated energy metabolism and pathology. As part of an effort to identify novel metabolic hormones, we recently characterized a highly conserved family of 15 secreted proteins, the C1q/TNF-related proteins (CTRP1-15). While related to adiponectin in sequence and structural organization, each CTRP has its own unique tissue expression profile and non-redundant function in regulating sugar and/or fat metabolism. Here, we summarize the current understanding of the physiological functions of CTRPs, emphasizing their metabolic roles. Future studies using gain-of-function and loss-of-function mouse models will provide greater mechanistic insights into the critical role CTRPs play in regulating systemic energy homeostasis.

Keywords

Adipokine Obesity Type 2 diabetes Insulin resistance Gluconeognesis Fat oxidation 

Abbreviations

ACC

Acetyl Co-A carboxylase

AgRP

Agouti-related protein

AMPK

AMP-activated protein kinase

CTRP

C1q/TNF-related protein

C/EBP-α

CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha

DIO

Diet-induced obese

Erk1/2

Extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2

eNOS

Endothelial nitric oxide synthase

FACS

Fluorescent activated cell sorter

GLUT4

Glucose transporter 4

G6Pase

Glucose-6-phosphatase

GPCR

G-protein coupled receptor

GPI

Glycosylphosphatidylinositol

JNK

c-Jun N-terminal kinase

KO

Knock-out

LKB1

Liver kinase B1

L-ORD

Late-onset retinal macular degeneration

MAPK

Mitogen activated protein kinase

NPY

Neuropeptide Y

PPAR-γ

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma

PCSK

Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin

PEPCK

Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase

SAPK

Stress-activated protein kinase

Notes

Acknowledgment

G.W.W. is supported by grants from the National Institute of Health (DK084171) and the American Heart Association (SDG2260721).

Conflict of interest

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marcus M. Seldin
    • 1
  • Stefanie Y. Tan
    • 1
  • G. William Wong
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Physiology and Center for Metabolism and Obesity ResearchThe Johns Hopkins University School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA

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