Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders

, Volume 14, Issue 3, pp 241–254 | Cite as

Dietary strategies to reduce metabolic syndrome

  • Catherine J. Andersen
  • Maria Luz Fernandez


Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities characterized by central obesity, dyslipidemias, hypertension, high fasting glucose, chronic low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress. This condition has become an increasing problem in our society where about 34 % of adults are diagnosed with MetS. In parallel with the adult situation, a significant number of children present lipid abnormalities and insulin resistance, which can be used as markers of MetS in the pediatric population. Changes in lifestyle including healthy dietary regimens and increased physical activity should be the first lines of therapy to decrease MetS. In this article, we present the most recent information on successful dietary modifications that can reduce the parameters associated with MetS. Successful dietary strategies include energy restriction and weight loss, manipulation of dietary macronutrients—either through restriction of carbohydrates, fat, or enrichment in beneficial fatty acids, incorporation of functional foods and bioactive nutrients, and adherence to dietary and lifestyle patterns such the Mediterranean diet and diet/exercise regimens. Together, the recent findings presented in this review serve as evidence to support the therapeutic treatment of MetS through diet.


Metabolic syndrome Dyslipidemia Insulin resistance Inflammation Energy restriction Carbohydrate-restricted diets Fatty acids Functional foods Mediterranean diet 



α-linoleic acid




Coronary heart disease


Carbohydrate-restricted diet


C-reactive protein


Cardiovascular disease


Docosahexanoic acid


Eicosapentanoic acid


Free fatty acids


Glutathione peroxidase




Homeostatic model assessment




Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1




Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1


Metabolic syndrome


Monounsaturated fatty acid


Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease


Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2


Nuclear factor κ B


Peripheral blood mononuclear cells


Polyunsaturated fatty acid


Peptide tyrosine tyrosine


Metabolic Syndrome Reduction in Navarra dietary pattern


Reactive oxygen species


Saturated fatty acid


Soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1


Type 2 diabetes mellitus




Toll-like receptor


Tumor necrosis factor α


Thioredoxin reductase 1


Waist circumference


Conflict of interest

Catherine Andersen and Maria Luz Fernandez have no conflict of interests in the data presented in this review.


  1. 1.
    Mozumdar A, Liguori G. Persistent increase of prevalence of metabolic syndrome among U.S. adults: NHANES III to NHANES 1999–2006. Diabetes Care. 2011;34:216–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Al-Sarraj T, Saadi H, Volek JS, Fernandez ML. Metabolic syndrome prevalence, dietary intake, and cardiovascular risk profile among overweight and obese adults 18–50 years old from the United Arab Emirates. Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2010;8:39–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Barquera S, Campos-Nonato I, Aguilar-Salinas C, Lopez-Ridaura R, Arredondo A, Rivera-Dommarco J. Diabetes in Mexico: cost and management of diabetes and its complications and challenges for health policy. Global Health. 2013;9:3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Damsgaard CT, Stark KD, Hjorth MF, Biltoft-Jensen A, Astrup A, Michaelsen KF, et al. n-3 PUFA status in school children is associated with beneficial lipid profile, reduced physical activity and increased blood pressure in boys. Br J Nutr. 2013;16:1–9.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Zaki ME, Mohamed SK, Bahgat KA, Kholoussi SM. Metabolic syndrome components in obese Egyptian children. Ann Saudi Med. 2012;32:603–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Boudreau DM, Malone DC, Raebel MA, Fishman PA, Nichols GA, Feldstein AC, et al. Health care utilization and costs by metabolic syndrome risk factors. Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2009;7:305–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ahluwalia N, Andreeva VA, Kesse-Guyot E, Hercberg S. Dietary patterns, inflammation and the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes Metab. 2013;39:99–110.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cornier MA, Dabelea D, Hernandez TL, Lindstrom RC, Steig AJ, Stob NR, et al. The metabolic syndrome. Endocr Rev. 2008;29:777–822.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Grundy SM. Metabolic syndrome: a multiplex cardiovascular risk factor. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92:399–404.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Yamaoka K, Tango T. Effects of lifestyle modification on metabolic syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Med. 2012;10:138.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Feldeisen SE, Tucker KL. Nutritional strategies in the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2007;32:46–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Dixit VD. Adipose-immune interactions during obesity and caloric restriction: reciprocal mechanisms regulating immunity and health span. J Leukoc Biol. 2008;84:882–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Willett WC. Dietary fats and coronary heart disease. J Intern Med. 2012;272:13–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Elizondo-Montemayor L, Gutierrez NG, Moreno DM, Martinez U, Tamargo D, Trevino M. School-based individualised lifestyle intervention decreases obesity and the metabolic syndrome in Mexican children. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2013;26 Suppl 1:82–9.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Madero M, Arriaga JC, Jalal D, Rivard C, McFann K, Perez-Mendez O, et al. The effect of two energy-restricted diets, a low-fructose diet versus a moderate natural fructose diet, on weight loss and metabolic syndrome parameters: a randomized controlled trial. Metabolism. 2011;60:1551–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Katcher HI, Legro RS, Kunselman AR, Gillies PJ, Demers LM, Bagshaw DM, et al. The effects of a whole grain-enriched hypocaloric diet on cardiovascular disease risk factors in men and women with metabolic syndrome. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;87:79–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Rayssiguier Y, Libako P, Nowacki W, Rock E. Magnesium deficiency and metabolic syndrome: stress and inflammation may reflect calcium activation. Magnes Res. 2010;23:73–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chan DC, Watts GF, Ng TW, Yamashita S, Barrett PH. Effect of weight loss on markers of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein metabolism in the metabolic syndrome. Eur J Clin Invest. 2008;38:743–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ng TW, Watts GF, Barrett PH, Rye KA, Chan DC. Effect of weight loss on LDL and HDL kinetics in the metabolic syndrome: associations with changes in plasma retinol-binding protein-4 and adiponectin levels. Diabetes Care. 2007;30:2945–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ng TW, Chan DC, Barrett PH, Watts GF. Effect of weight loss on HDL-apoA-II kinetics in the metabolic syndrome. Clinical Science. 2010;118:79–85.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Richard C, Couture P, Desroches S, Lichtenstein AH, Lamarche B. Effect of weight loss, independent of change in diet composition, on apolipoprotein AI kinetic in men with metabolic syndrome. J Lipid Res. 2013;54:232–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Tomada I, Fernandes D, Guimaraes JT, Almeida H, Neves D. Energy restriction ameliorates metabolic syndrome-induced cavernous tissue structural modifications in aged rats. Age (Dordr). 2013;1:541–8.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Melanson KJ, Summers A, Nguyen V, Brosnahan J, Lowndes J, Angelopoulos TJ, et al. Body composition, dietary composition, and components of metabolic syndrome in overweight and obese adults after a 12-week trial on dietary treatments focused on portion control, energy density, or glycemic index. Nutr J. 2012;11:57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Abete I, Astrup A, Martinez JA, Thorsdottir I, Zulet MA. Obesity and the metabolic syndrome: role of different dietary macronutrient distribution patterns and specific nutritional components on weight loss and maintenance. Nutr Rev. 2010;68:214–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Shai I, Schwarzfuchs D, Henkin Y, Shahar DR, Witkow S, Greenberg I, et al. Weight loss with a low-carbohydrate, Mediterranean, or low-fat diet. N Engl J Med. 2008;359:229–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Volek JS, Phinney SD, Forsythe CE, Quann EE, Wood RJ, Puglisi MJ, et al. Carbohydrate restriction has a more favorable impact on the metabolic syndrome than a low fat diet. Lipids. 2009;44:297–309.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Volek JS, Fernandez ML, Feinman RD, Phinney SD. Dietary carbohydrate restriction induces a unique metabolic state positively affecting atherogenic dyslipidemia, fatty acid partitioning, and metabolic syndrome. Prog Lipid Res. 2008;47:307–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wood RJ, Fernandez ML, Sharman MJ, Silvestre R, Greene CM, Zern TL, et al. Effects of a carbohydrate-restricted diet with and without supplemental soluble fiber on plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and other clinical markers of cardiovascular risk. Metabolism. 2007;56:58–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lofgren IE, Herron KL, West KL, Zern TL, Brownbill RA, Ilich JZ, et al. Weight loss favorably modifies anthropometrics and reverses the metabolic syndrome in premenopausal women. J Am Coll Nutr. 2005;24:486–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Al-Sarraj T, Saadi H, Calle MC, Volek JS, Fernandez ML. Carbohydrate restriction, as a first-line dietary intervention, effectively reduces biomarkers of metabolic syndrome in Emirati adults. J Nutr. 2009;139:1667–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Cahova M, Dankova H, Palenickova E, Papackova Z, Kazdova L. The opposite effects of high-sucrose and high-fat diet on Fatty Acid oxidation and very low density lipoprotein secretion in rat model of metabolic syndrome. J Nutr Metab. 2012;2012:757205.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Solga S, Alkhuraishe AR, Clark JM, Torbenson M, Greenwald A, Diehl AM, et al. Dietary composition and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Dig Dis Sci. 2004;49:1578–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kang H, Greenson JK, Omo JT, Chao C, Peterman D, Anderson L, et al. Metabolic syndrome is associated with greater histologic severity, higher carbohydrate, and lower fat diet in patients with NAFLD. Am J Gastroenterol. 2006;101:2247–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Yancy Jr WS, Olsen MK, Guyton JR, Bakst RP, Westman EC. A low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet versus a low-fat diet to treat obesity and hyperlipidemia: a randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med. 2004;140:769–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Browning JD, Baker JA, Rogers T, Davis J, Satapati S, Burgess SC. Short-term weight loss and hepatic triglyceride reduction: evidence of a metabolic advantage with dietary carbohydrate restriction. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;93:1048–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Merino J, Kones R, Ferre R, Plana N, Girona J, Aragones G, et al. Negative effect of a low-carbohydrate, high-protein, high-fat diet on small peripheral artery reactivity in patients with increased cardiovascular risk. Br J Nutr. 2013;109:1241–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Volek JS, Ballard KD, Silvestre R, Judelson DA, Quann EE, Forsythe CE, et al. Effects of dietary carbohydrate restriction versus low-fat diet on flow-mediated dilation. Metabolism. 2009;58:1769–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Gillingham LG, Harris-Janz S, Jones PJ. Dietary monounsaturated fatty acids are protective against metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Lipids. 2011;46:209–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Robinson LE, Mazurak VC. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: relationship to inflammation in healthy adults and adults exhibiting features of metabolic syndrome. Lipids. 2013;48:319–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Nordmann AJ, Suter-Zimmermann K, Bucher HC, Shai I, Tuttle KR, Estruch R, et al. Meta-analysis comparing Mediterranean to low-fat diets for modification of cardiovascular risk factors. Am J Med. 2011;124(841–851):e842.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Siri-Tarino PW, Sun Q, Hu FB, Krauss RM. Meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies evaluating the association of saturated fat with cardiovascular disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;91:535–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Xu X, Liu C, Xu Z, Tzan K, Wang A, Rajagopalan S, et al. Altered adipocyte progenitor population and adipose-related gene profile in adipose tissue by long-term high-fat diet in mice. Life Sci. 2012;90:1001–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Cruz-Teno C, Perez-Martinez P, Delgado-Lista J, Yubero-Serrano EM, Garcia-Rios A, Marin C, et al. Dietary fat modifies the postprandial inflammatory state in subjects with metabolic syndrome: the LIPGENE study. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2012;56:854–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Camargo A, Rangel-Zuniga OA, Pena-Orihuela P, Marin C, Perez-Martinez P, Delgado-Lista J, et al. Postprandial changes in the proteome are modulated by dietary fat in patients with metabolic syndrome. J Nutr Biochem. 2013;24:318–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Pena-Orihuela P, Camargo A, Rangel-Zuniga OA, Perez-Martinez P, Cruz-Teno C, Delgado-Lista J, et al. Antioxidant system response is modified by dietary fat in adipose tissue of metabolic syndrome patients. J Nutr Biochem. 2013. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2013.02.012.
  46. 46.
    Meneses ME, Camargo A, Perez-Martinez P, Delgado-Lista J, Cruz-Teno C, Jimenez-Gomez Y, et al. Postprandial inflammatory response in adipose tissue of patients with metabolic syndrome after the intake of different dietary models. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2011;55:1759–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Jimenez-Gomez Y, Marin C, Peerez-Martinez P, Hartwich J, Malczewska-Malec M, Golabek I, et al. A low-fat, high-complex carbohydrate diet supplemented with long-chain (n-3) fatty acids alters the postprandial lipoprotein profile in patients with metabolic syndrome. J Nutr. 2010;140:1595–601.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Jans A, van Hees AM, Gjelstad IM, Sparks LM, Tierney AC, Riserus U, et al. Impact of dietary fat quantity and quality on skeletal muscle fatty acid metabolism in subjects with the metabolic syndrome. Metabolism. 2012;61:1554–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Baxheinrich A, Stratmann B, Lee-Barkey YH, Tschoepe D, Wahrburg U. Effects of a rapeseed oil-enriched hypoenergetic diet with a high content of alpha-linolenic acid on body weight and cardiovascular risk profile in patients with the metabolic syndrome. Br J Nutr. 2012;108:682–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Poudyal H, Panchal SK, Ward LC, Brown L. Effects of ALA, EPA and DHA in high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome in rats. J Nutr Biochem. 2013;24:1041–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Poudyal H, Kumar SA, Iyer A, Waanders J, Ward LC, Brown L. Responses to oleic, linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids in high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome in rats. J Nutr Biochem. 2013;24:1381–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Carvalho RF, Uehara SK, Rosa G. Microencapsulated conjugated linoleic acid associated with hypocaloric diet reduces body fat in sedentary women with metabolic syndrome. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2012;8:661–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Fulgoni 3rd VL, Dreher M, Davenport AJ. Avocado consumption is associated with better diet quality and nutrient intake, and lower metabolic syndrome risk in US adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001–2008. Nutr J. 2013;12:1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Wang X, Li Z, Liu Y, Lv X, Yang W. Effects of pistachios on body weight in Chinese subjects with metabolic syndrome. Nutr J. 2012;11:20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Aukema HM, Lu J, Borthwick F, Proctor SD. Dietary fish oil reduces glomerular injury and elevated renal hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid levels in the JCR:LA-cp rat, a model of the metabolic syndrome. Br J Nutr. 2013;110:11–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Tang M, Armstrong CL, Leidy HJ, Campbell WW. Normal vs. high-protein weight loss diets in men: effects on body composition and indices of metabolic syndrome. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2013;21:E204–10.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Dutheil F, Lac G, Courteix D, Dore E, Chapier R, Roszyk L, et al. Treatment of metabolic syndrome by combination of physical activity and diet needs an optimal protein intake: a randomized controlled trial. Nutr J. 2012;11:72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Madani Z, Louchami K, Sener A, Malaisse WJ, Ait Yahia D. Dietary sardine protein lowers insulin resistance, leptin and TNF-alpha and beneficially affects adipose tissue oxidative stress in rats with fructose-induced metabolic syndrome. Int J Mol Med. 2012;29:311–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Ouellet V, Weisnagel SJ, Marois J, Bergeron J, Julien P, Gougeon R, et al. Dietary cod protein reduces plasma C-reactive protein in insulin-resistant men and women. J Nutr. 2008;138:2386–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Ouellet V, Marois J, Weisnagel SJ, Jacques H. Dietary cod protein improves insulin sensitivity in insulin-resistant men and women: a randomized controlled trial. Diabetes Care. 2007;30:2816–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Monti LD, Casiraghi MC, Setola E, Galluccio E, Pagani MA, Quaglia L, et al. L-arginine enriched biscuits improve endothelial function and glucose metabolism: a pilot study in healthy subjects and a cross-over study in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance and metabolic syndrome. Metabolism. 2013;62:255–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Chen CC, Lin WY, Li CI, Liu CS, Li TC, Chen YT, et al. The association of alcohol consumption with metabolic syndrome and its individual components: the Taichung community health study. Nutr Res. 2012;32:24–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Makela SM, Jauhiainen M, Ala-Korpela M, Metso J, Lehto TM, Savolainen MJ, et al. HDL2 of heavy alcohol drinkers enhances cholesterol efflux from raw macrophages via phospholipid-rich HDL 2b particles. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2008;32:991–1000.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Beulens JW, Sierksma A, van Tol A, Fournier N, van Gent T, Paul JL, et al. Moderate alcohol consumption increases cholesterol efflux mediated by ABCA1. J Lipid Res. 2004;45:1716–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    van der Gaag MS, van Tol A, Scheek LM, James RW, Urgert R, Schaafsma G, et al. Daily moderate alcohol consumption increases serum paraoxonase activity; a diet-controlled, randomised intervention study in middle-aged men. Atherosclerosis. 1999;147:405–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Kontush A, Chapman MJ. Functionally defective high-density lipoprotein: a new therapeutic target at the crossroads of dyslipidemia, inflammation, and atherosclerosis. Pharmacol Rev. 2006;58:342–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Rimm EB, Williams P, Fosher K, Criqui M, Stampfer MJ. Moderate alcohol intake and lower risk of coronary heart disease: meta-analysis of effects on lipids and haemostatic factors. BMJ. 1999;319:1523–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Elmadhun NY, Lassaletta AD, Chu LM, Bianchi C, Sellke FW. Vodka and wine consumption in a swine model of metabolic syndrome alters insulin signaling pathways in the liver and skeletal muscle. Surgery. 2012;152:414–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Baik I, Shin C. Prospective study of alcohol consumption and metabolic syndrome. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;87:1455–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Kim J, Chu SK, Kim K, Moon JR. Alcohol use behaviors and risk of metabolic syndrome in South Korean middle-aged men. BMC Public Health. 2011;11:489.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Fan AZ, Russell M, Naimi T, Li Y, Liao Y, Jiles R, et al. Patterns of alcohol consumption and the metabolic syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93:3833–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Zern TL, Fernandez ML. Cardioprotective effects of dietary polyphenols. J Nutr. 2005;135:2291–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Schini-Kerth VB, Auger C, Kim JH, Etienne-Selloum N, Chataigneau T. Nutritional improvement of the endothelial control of vascular tone by polyphenols: role of NO and EDHF. Pflugers Arch. 2010;459:853–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Li Y, Guo H, Wu M, Liu M. Serum and dietary antioxidant status is associated with lower prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in a study in Shanghai. China, Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2013;22:60–8.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Beydoun MA, Shroff MR, Chen X, Beydoun HA, Wang Y, Zonderman AB. Serum antioxidant status is associated with metabolic syndrome among U.S. adults in recent national surveys. J Nutr. 2011;141:903–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Puchau B, Zulet MA, de Echavarri AG, Hermsdorff HH, Martinez JA. Dietary total antioxidant capacity is negatively associated with some metabolic syndrome features in healthy young adults. Nutrition. 2010;26:534–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Bilbis LS, Muhammad SA, Saidu Y, Adamu Y. Effect of vitamins a, C, and e supplementation in the treatment of metabolic syndrome in albino rats. Biochem Res Int. 2012;2012:678582.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Czernichow S, Vergnaud AC, Galan P, Arnaud J, Favier A, Faure H, et al. Effects of long-term antioxidant supplementation and association of serum antioxidant concentrations with risk of metabolic syndrome in adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;90:329–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Galleano M, Calabro V, Prince PD, Litterio MC, Piotrkowski B, Vazquez-Prieto MA, et al. Flavonoids and metabolic syndrome. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2012;1259:87–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Medjakovic S, Jungbauer A. Pomegranate: a fruit that ameliorates metabolic syndrome. Food Funct. 2013;4:19–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Barona J, Aristizabal JC, Blesso CN, Volek JS, Fernandez ML. Grape polyphenols reduce blood pressure and increase flow-mediated vasodilation in men with metabolic syndrome. J Nutr. 2012;142:1626–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Robich MP, Chu LM, Burgess TA, Feng J, Han Y, Nezafat R, et al. Resveratrol preserves myocardial function and perfusion in remote nonischemic myocardium in a swine model of metabolic syndrome. J Am Coll Surg. 2012;215:681–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Baek SH, Shin WC, Ryu HS, Lee DW, Moon E, Seo CS, et al. Creation of resveratrol-enriched rice for the treatment of metabolic syndrome and related diseases. PLoS One. 2013;8:e57930.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Barrios-Ramos JP, Garduno-Siciliano L, Loredo M, Chamorro-Cevallos G, Jaramillo-Flores ME. The effect of cocoa, soy, oats and fish oil on metabolic syndrome in rats. J Sci Food Agric. 2012;92:2349–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Lopez-Legarrea P, de la Iglesia R, Abete I, Bondia-Pons I, Navas-Carretero S, Forga L, et al. Short-term role of the dietary total antioxidant capacity in two hypocaloric regimes on obese with metabolic syndrome symptoms: the RESMENA randomized controlled trial. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2013;10:22.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Riso P, Klimis-Zacas D, Del Bo C, Martini D, Campolo J, Vendrame S, et al. Effect of a wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) drink intervention on markers of oxidative stress, inflammation and endothelial function in humans with cardiovascular risk factors. Eur J Nutr. 2013;52:949–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Kolehmainen M, Mykkanen O, Kirjavainen PV, Leppanen T, Moilanen E, Adriaens M, et al. Bilberries reduce low-grade inflammation in individuals with features of metabolic syndrome. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2012;56:1501–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Vendrame S, Daugherty A, Kristo AS, Riso P, Klimis-Zacas D. Wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) consumption improves inflammatory status in the obese Zucker rat model of the metabolic syndrome. J Nutr Biochem. 2013;24:1508–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Vendrame S, Guglielmetti S, Riso P, Arioli S, Klimis-Zacas D, Porrini M. Six-week consumption of a wild blueberry powder drink increases bifidobacteria in the human gut. J Agric Food Chem. 2011;59:12815–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    van Meijl LE, Vrolix R, Mensink RP. Dairy product consumption and the metabolic syndrome. Nutr Res Rev. 2008;21:148–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Rideout TC, Marinangeli CP, Martin H, Browne RW, Rempel CB. Consumption of low-fat dairy foods for 6 months improves insulin resistance without adversely affecting lipids or bodyweight in healthy adults: a randomized free-living cross-over study. Nutr J. 2013;12:56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Akter S, Kurotani K, Nanri A, Pham NM, Sato M, Hayabuchi H, et al. Dairy consumption is associated with decreased insulin resistance among the Japanese. Nutr Res. 2013;33:286–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Kim J. Dairy food consumption is inversely associated with the risk of the metabolic syndrome in Korean adults. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2013;26 Suppl 1:171–9.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Jones KW, Eller LK, Parnell JA, Doyle-Baker PK, Edwards AL, Reimer RA. Effect of a dairy- and calcium-rich diet on weight loss and appetite during energy restriction in overweight and obese adults: a randomized trial. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2013;67:371–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Samara A, Herbeth B, Ndiaye NC, Fumeron F, Billod S, Siest G, et al. Dairy product consumption, calcium intakes, and metabolic syndrome-related factors over 5 years in the STANISLAS study. Nutrition. 2013;29:519–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Laso N, Brugue E, Vidal J, Ros E, Arnaiz JA, Carne X, et al. Effects of milk supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid (isomers cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12) on body composition and metabolic syndrome components. Br J Nutr. 2007;98:860–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Blesso CN, Andersen CJ, Barona J, Volek JS, Fernandez ML. Whole egg consumption improves lipoprotein profiles and insulin sensitivity to a greater extent than yolk-free egg substitute in individuals with metabolic syndrome. Metabolism. 2013;62:400–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Blesso CN, Andersen CJ, Barona J, Volk B, Volek JS, Fernandez ML. Effects of carbohydrate restriction and dietary cholesterol provided by eggs on clinical risk factors in metabolic syndrome. J Clin Lipidol. 2013. doi: 10.1016/j.jacl.2013.03.008.
  99. 99.
    Blesso CN, Andersen CJ, Bolling BW, Fernandez ML. Egg intake improves carotenoid status by increasing plasma HDL cholesterol in adults with metabolic syndrome. Food Funct. 2013;4:213–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Andersen CJ, Blesso CN, Lee J, Barona J, Shah D, Thomas MJ, et al. Egg consumption modulates HDL lipid composition and increases the cholesterol-accepting capacity of serum in metabolic syndrome. Lipids. 2013;48:557–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Cloetens L, Ulmius M, Johansson-Persson A, Akesson B, Onning G. Role of dietary beta-glucans in the prevention of the metabolic syndrome. Nutr Rev. 2012;70:444–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Dall’alba V, Silva FM, Antonio JP, Steemburgo T, Royer CP, Almeida JC, et al. Improvement of the metabolic syndrome profile by soluble fibre—guar gum—in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomised clinical trial. Br J Nutr. 2013. doi: 10.1017/S0007114513001025.
  103. 103.
    Papathanasopoulos A, Camilleri M. Dietary fiber supplements: effects in obesity and metabolic syndrome and relationship to gastrointestinal functions. Gastroenterology. 2010;138(65–72):e61–2.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Mollard RC, Luhovyy BL, Panahi S, Nunez M, Hanley A, Anderson GH. Regular consumption of pulses for 8 weeks reduces metabolic syndrome risk factors in overweight and obese adults. Br J Nutr. 2012;108 Suppl 1:S111–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Robertson MD, Wright JW, Loizon E, Debard C, Vidal H, Shojaee-Moradie F, et al. Insulin-sensitizing effects on muscle and adipose tissue after dietary fiber intake in men and women with metabolic syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97:3326–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Watt MJ, Carey AL, Wolsk-Petersen E, Kraemer FB, Pedersen BK, Febbraio MA. Hormone-sensitive lipase is reduced in the adipose tissue of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: influence of IL-6 infusion. Diabetologia. 2005;48:105–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Berndt J, Kralisch S, Kloting N, Ruschke K, Kern M, Fasshauer M, et al. Adipose triglyceride lipase gene expression in human visceral obesity. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2008;116:203–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    D’Aversa F, Tortora A, Ianiro G, Ponziani FR, Annicchiarico BE, Gasbarrini A. Gut microbiota and metabolic syndrome. Intern Emerg Med. 2013;8 Suppl 1:S11–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Yoo SR, Kim YJ, Park DY, Jung UJ, Jeon SM, Ahn YT, et al. Probiotics L. plantarum and L. curvatus in combination alter hepatic lipid metabolism and suppress diet-induced obesity. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2013. doi: 10.1002/oby.20428.
  110. 110.
    Chen J, Wang R, Li XF, Wang RL. Bifidobacterium adolescentis supplementation ameliorates visceral fat accumulation and insulin sensitivity in an experimental model of the metabolic syndrome. Br J Nutr. 2012;107:1429–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Huang HY, Korivi M, Tsai CH, Yang JH, Tsai YC. Supplementation of lactobacillus plantarum K68 and fruit-vegetable ferment along with high fat-fructose diet attenuates metabolic syndrome in rats with insulin resistance. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013;2013:943020.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Park DY, Ahn YT, Huh CS, McGregor RA, Choi MS. Dual probiotic strains suppress high fructose-induced metabolic syndrome. World J Gastroenterol. 2013;19:274–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Shi L, Li M, Miyazawa K, Li Y, Hiramatsu M, Xu J, et al. Effects of heat-inactivated Lactobacillus gasseri TMC0356 on metabolic characteristics and immunity of rats with the metabolic syndrome. Br J Nutr. 2013;109:263–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Leber B, Tripolt NJ, Blattl D, Eder M, Wascher TC, Pieber TR, et al. The influence of probiotic supplementation on gut permeability in patients with metabolic syndrome: an open label, randomized pilot study. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012;66:1110–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Gonzalez-Quintela A, Alonso M, Campos J, Vizcaino L, Loidi L, Gude F. Determinants of serum concentrations of lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) in the adult population: the role of obesity. PLoS One. 2013;8:e54600.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Kesse-Guyot E, Ahluwalia N, Lassale C, Hercberg S, Fezeu L, Lairon D. Adherence to Mediterranean diet reduces the risk of metabolic syndrome: a 6-year prospective study. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2013;23:677–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Jones JL, Fernandez ML, McIntosh MS, Najm W, Calle MC, Kalynych C, et al. A Mediterranean-style low-glycemic-load diet improves variables of metabolic syndrome in women, and addition of a phytochemical-rich medical food enhances benefits on lipoprotein metabolism. J Clin Lipidol. 2011;5:188–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Jones JL, Comperatore M, Barona J, Calle MC, Andersen C, McIntosh M, et al. A Mediterranean-style, low-glycemic-load diet decreases atherogenic lipoproteins and reduces lipoprotein (a) and oxidized low-density lipoprotein in women with metabolic syndrome. Metabolism. 2012;61:366–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Jones JL, Ackermann D, Barona J, Calle M, Andersen C, Kim JE, et al. A Mediterranean low-glycemic-load diet alone or in combination with a medical food improves insulin sensitivity and reduces inflammation in women with metabolic syndrome. Br J Med Med Res. 2011;1:356–70.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Richard C, Couture P, Desroches S, Benjannet S, Seidah NG, Lichtenstein AH, et al. Effect of the Mediterranean diet with and without weight loss on surrogate markers of cholesterol homeostasis in men with the metabolic syndrome. Br J Nutr. 2012;107:705–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Richard C, Couture P, Desroches S, Charest A, Lamarche B. Effect of the Mediterranean diet with and without weight loss on cardiovascular risk factors in men with the metabolic syndrome. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2011;21:628–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Richard C, Couture P, Desroches S, Lamarche B. Effect of the Mediterranean diet with and without weight loss on markers of inflammation in men with metabolic syndrome. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2013;21:51–7.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Defoort C, Vincent-Baudry S, Lairon D. Effects of 3-month Mediterranean-type diet on postprandial TAG and apolipoprotein B48 in the Medi-RIVAGE cohort. Public Health Nutr. 2011;14:2302–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Bedard A, Riverin M, Dodin S, Corneau L, Lemieux S. Sex differences in the impact of the Mediterranean diet on cardiovascular risk profile. Br J Nutr. 2012;108:1428–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Mitjavila MT, Fandos M, Salas-Salvado J, Covas MI, Borrego S, Estruch R, et al. The Mediterranean diet improves the systemic lipid and DNA oxidative damage in metabolic syndrome individuals. A randomized, controlled, trial. Clin Nutr. 2013;32:172–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Estruch R, Ros E, Salas-Salvado J, Covas MI, Corella D, Aros F, et al. Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease with a Mediterranean diet. N Engl J Med. 2013;368:1279–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Menegotto G, Moraes Silva F, de Azevedo MJ, de Almeida JC. Lunch energy density and the metabolic syndrome in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Br J Nutr. 2013. doi: 10.1017/S0007114513000846.
  128. 128.
    Almoosawi S, Prynne CJ, Hardy R, Stephen AM. Time-of-day and nutrient composition of eating occasions: prospective association with the metabolic syndrome in the 1946 British birth cohort. Int J Obes (Lond). 2013;37:725–31.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Min C, Noh H, Kang YS, Sim HJ, Baik HW, Song WO, et al. Breakfast patterns are associated with metabolic syndrome in Korean adults. Nutr Res Pract. 2012;6:61–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Kuroki Y, Kanauchi K, Kanauchi M. Adherence index to the American Heart Association Diet and Lifestyle Recommendation is associated with the metabolic syndrome in Japanese male workers. Eur J Intern Med. 2012;23:e199–203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Baudrand R, Campino C, Carvajal CA, Olivieri O, Guidi G, Faccini G, et al. High sodium intake is associated with increased glucocorticoid production, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2013. doi: 10.1111/cen.12225.
  132. 132.
    de la Iglesia R, Lopez-Legarrea P, Celada P, Sanchez-Muniz FJ, Martinez JA, Zulet MA. Beneficial effects of the RESMENA dietary pattern on oxidative stress in patients suffering from metabolic syndrome with hyperglycemia are associated to dietary TAC and fruit consumption. Int J Mol Sci. 2013;14:6903–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    den Boer AT, Herraets IJ, Stegen J, Roumen C, Corpeleijn E, Schaper NC, Feskens E, Blaak EE (2013) Prevention of the metabolic syndrome in IGT subjects in a lifestyle intervention: Results from the SLIM study, Nutr Metab Cardiovasc DisGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Malin SK, Niemi N, Solomon TP, Haus JM, Kelly KR, Filion J, et al. Exercise training with weight loss and either a high- or low-glycemic index diet reduces metabolic syndrome severity in older adults. Ann Nutr Metab. 2012;61:135–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Nazare JA, Smith J, Borel AL, Almeras N, Tremblay A, Bergeron J, et al. Changes in both global diet quality and physical activity level synergistically reduce visceral adiposity in men with features of metabolic syndrome. J Nutr. 2013;143:1074–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Dutheil F, Lac G, Lesourd B, Chapier R, Walther G, Vinet A, et al. Different modalities of exercise to reduce visceral fat mass and cardiovascular risk in metabolic syndrome: the RESOLVE* randomized trial. Int J Cardiol. 2013. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2013.05.012.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Nutritional SciencesUniversity of ConnecticutStorrsUSA

Personalised recommendations