Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders

, Volume 14, Issue 3, pp 241–254

Dietary strategies to reduce metabolic syndrome

Article

Abstract

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities characterized by central obesity, dyslipidemias, hypertension, high fasting glucose, chronic low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress. This condition has become an increasing problem in our society where about 34 % of adults are diagnosed with MetS. In parallel with the adult situation, a significant number of children present lipid abnormalities and insulin resistance, which can be used as markers of MetS in the pediatric population. Changes in lifestyle including healthy dietary regimens and increased physical activity should be the first lines of therapy to decrease MetS. In this article, we present the most recent information on successful dietary modifications that can reduce the parameters associated with MetS. Successful dietary strategies include energy restriction and weight loss, manipulation of dietary macronutrients—either through restriction of carbohydrates, fat, or enrichment in beneficial fatty acids, incorporation of functional foods and bioactive nutrients, and adherence to dietary and lifestyle patterns such the Mediterranean diet and diet/exercise regimens. Together, the recent findings presented in this review serve as evidence to support the therapeutic treatment of MetS through diet.

Keywords

Metabolic syndrome Dyslipidemia Insulin resistance Inflammation Energy restriction Carbohydrate-restricted diets Fatty acids Functional foods Mediterranean diet 

Abbreviations

ALA

α-linoleic acid

Apo

Apolipoprotein

CHD

Coronary heart disease

CRD

Carbohydrate-restricted diet

CRP

C-reactive protein

CVD

Cardiovascular disease

DHA

Docosahexanoic acid

EPA

Eicosapentanoic acid

FFA

Free fatty acids

GPX

Glutathione peroxidase

HDL-C

HDL-cholesterol

HOMA

Homeostatic model assessment

IL

Interleukin

Keap1

Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1

LDL-C

LDL-cholesterol

MCP-1

Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1

MetS

Metabolic syndrome

MUFA

Monounsaturated fatty acid

NAFLD

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

NFE2L2

Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2

NF-κB

Nuclear factor κ B

PBMC

Peripheral blood mononuclear cells

PUFA

Polyunsaturated fatty acid

PYY

Peptide tyrosine tyrosine

RESMENA

Metabolic Syndrome Reduction in Navarra dietary pattern

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

SFA

Saturated fatty acid

sICAM-1

Soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1

T2DM

Type 2 diabetes mellitus

TG

Triglyceride

TLR

Toll-like receptor

TNFα

Tumor necrosis factor α

TXNRD1

Thioredoxin reductase 1

WC

Waist circumference

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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Nutritional SciencesUniversity of ConnecticutStorrsUSA

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