Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders

, Volume 14, Issue 2, pp 133–140

Insulin resistance, lipodystrophy and cardiometabolic syndrome in HIV/AIDS



HIV associated insulin resistance, lipodistrophy and cardiometabolic syndrome have been extensively studied and continue to be the scope of much research. There is compelling evidence that both the HIV itself and the therapeutical regimes are major contributors to all of these associated comorbidities. HIV has increasingly been recognized as a disease of accelerated aging, manifested by increased progression of vascular disease and cellular markers of aging. The antiretroviral medication can increase insulin resistance and cause lipotoxocity and HIV-associated lipodystrophy leading to cardiovascular pathology. In this article we review the pathogenesis, management, and prevention of the long-term complications of HIV and its therapies, including cardiovascular disease, lipodystrophy, and insulin resistance along with the growing focus on biomarkers to predict development of end-organ disease. Through a focused literature search we review the established evidence, the developing research about the treatment strategies in treated HIV infection as well as identify potential areas for future research.


HIV Lipodistrophy Insulin resistance Metabolic syndrome Cardiometabolic syndrome Antiretroviral therapy HAART 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PediatricsChildren’s Hospital at SUNY Downstate and Kings County Hospital CenterBrooklynUSA
  2. 2.Pediatric Endocrinology Divisions of Infants and Children’s Hospital of Brooklyn at MaimonidesChildren’s Hospital at SUNY Downstate and Kings County Hospital CenterBrooklynUSA

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