Advertisement

The uneven impact of women's retirement on their daughters' employment

  • Ainoa Aparicio FenollEmail author
Article
  • 7 Downloads

Abstract

This paper studies the impact of women’s retirement on their daughters’ employment. Using SHARE and self-collected historical data on legal retirement ages in 20 European countries, I find that women’s retirement leads to an increase in their daughters’ employment only in countries with limited family policies and strong family ties. This positive effect can be explained by increases in in-kind transfers to daughters and grandchild care following retirement.

Keywords

Women’s retirement Daughters’ employment Intergenerational transfers Grandchild 

JEL

J08 J13 J22 

Notes

Acknowledgements

I thank Paola Giuliano, Esteban Jaimovich, Ignacio Monzón, Manuela Naldini, Mariacristina Rossi, Aleksey Tetenov and conference participants at the SPP 1764 Conference in Nuremberg, the SEHO conference in Paris and the Applied Lunch at Collegio Carlo Alberto for useful comments and suggestions. Financial support from the Joint Transnational Project "CIRCLE—Care and Income Redistributive Cycles in the Lives of Europeans" is gratefully acknowledged. I am grateful to Filippo Ascolani for excellent research assistance.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The author declares that she has no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Aasve, A., Arpino, B., & Goisis, A. (2012). Grandparenting and mothers’ labour force participation: a comparative analysis using the Generations and Gender Survey. Demographic Research, 27(3), 53–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Albertini, M., Kohli, M., & Vogel, C. (2007). Intergenerational transfers of time and money in European families: common patterns—different regimes? Journal of European Social Policy, 17, 319–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Angrist, J. D., & Lavy, V. (1999). Using maimonides rule to estimate the effect of class size on scholastic achievement. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 114, 533–575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Angrist, J., & Pischke, J.-S. (2009). Mostly harmless econometrics: an empiricistas companion. Princeton: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Aparicio-Fenoll, A., & Vidal-Fernandez, M. (2015). Working women and fertility: the role of grandmothers’ labor force participation. CESifo Economic Studies, CESifo, 61(1), 123–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Arpino, B., Pronzato, C., & Tavares, L. (2014). The effect of grandparental support on mothers? labour market participation: an instrumental variable approach. European Journal of Population, 30, 369–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Battistin, E., De Nadai, M., & Padula, M. (2015). Roadblocks on the road to grandma’s house: fertility consequences of delayed retirement, Queen Mary, University of London Working Paper No. 748.Google Scholar
  8. Bertoni, M., & Brunello, G. (2017). Does delayed retirement affect youth employment? Evidence from Italian local labour markets. IZA Discussion Paper 10733.Google Scholar
  9. Bettio, F., & Plantenga, J. (2004). Comparing care regimes in Europe. Feminist Economics, 10(1), 85–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bratti, M., Frattini, T., & Scervini, F. (2018). Grandparental availability for child care and maternal labor force participation: pension reform evidence from Italy, Journal of Population Economics, Springer; European Society for Population Economics, Vol. 31(4), PP. 1239–1277, October.Google Scholar
  11. Campbell, D. (1969). Reforms and experiments. American Psychologist, 24, 409–429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cardia, E., & Ng, S. (2003). Intergenerational time transfers and childcare. Review of Economic Dynamics, 6(2), 431–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Coe, N. B., & Zamarro, G. (2011). Retirement effects on health in Europe. Journal of Health Economics, 30.1, 77–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Compton, J., & Pollak, R. (2014). Family proximity, childcare, and women’s labor force attachment. Journal of Urban Economics, 79(C), 72–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Del Boca, D. (2002). The effect of child care and part time opportunities on participation and fertility fecisions in Italy. Journal of Population Economics, 15, 549–573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Del Boca, D., Locatelli, M., & Vuri, D. (2005). Child care choices by Italian households. Review of Economics of the Household, 3, 453–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Di Gessa, G., & Grundy, E. (2016). The dynamics of paid and unpaid activities among people aged 50–69 in Denmark, France, Italy, and England. Research on Aging, 39(9), 1013–1038.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dimova, R., & Wolff, F. (2011). Do downward private transfers enhance maternal labor supply? evidence from around Europe. Journal of Population Economics, 24(3), 911–933.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Esping-Andersen, G. (1999). Social foundations of postindustrial economies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ferrera, M. (1996). The southern model of welfare in social Europe. Journal of European Social Policy, 6(1), 17–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Flaquer, L. (2000). Family policy and welfare state in Southern Europe, Working Papers No. 185, Institut de Ciencies Politiques i Socials, Barcelona.Google Scholar
  22. Gangl, M., & Ziefle, A. (2015). The making of a good woman: extended parental leave entitlements and mothers’ work commitment in Germany. American Journal of Sociology, 121, 511–563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Garcia-Moran, E., & Kuehn, Z. (2017). With strings attached: grandparent-provided child care and female labor market outcomes. Review of Economic Dynamics, 23, 80–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gauthier, A., & Smeeding, T. M. (2003). Time use at older ages: cross-national differences. Research on Aging, 25(3), 247–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gershuny, J., Harvey, A. S., & Merz, J. (2004). Editors’ Introduction. Electronic International Journal of Time Use Research, 1(1), I–II.Google Scholar
  26. Haberkern, K., Schmid, T., & Szydlik, M. (2015). Gender differences in intergenerational care in European welfare states. Ageing and Society, 35, 298–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hank, K., & Buber, I. (2009). Grandparents caring for their grandchildren: findings from the 2004 Survey of health, ageing and retirement in Europe. Journal of Family Issues, 30, 53–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hank, K., & Korbmacher, J. M. (2013). Parenthood and retirement. European Societies, 15(3), 446–461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Jaumotte, F. (2003). Female Labour Force Participation: Past Trends and Main Determinants in OECD Countries, OECD Working Paper No. 376. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2344556.
  30. Jurado, T., & Naldini, M. (2018). Child and Family Policy in Southern Europe. In: G. B. Eydal & T. Rostgaard (Eds), Handbook of Child and Family Policy, Edward Elgar Publisher, pp. 209–222.Google Scholar
  31. Jurado, T., & Naldini, M. (1996). Is the South so Different? Italian and Spanish Families in Comparative Perspective. In: South European Society & Politics, Vol. 1, n. 3, Winter, London, Frank Cass, 1996, pp. 42–66.Google Scholar
  32. Kalmijn, M., & Saraceno, C. (2008). A comparative perspective on intergenerational support. European Societies, 10, 479–508.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Karamessini (2007). The Southern European Social Model: Changes and Continuities in Recent Decades, Discussion paper of the International Institute for Labour Studies. Geneva, ZDB-ID 2190413-3. Vol. 174.Google Scholar
  34. Kohli, M. E., & Albertini, M. (2008). The family as a source of support for adult children’s own family projects: European varieties. In: C. Saraceno (Ed.), Families, ageing and social policies. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2008 (pp. 38–58).Google Scholar
  35. Kovacheva, S., Doorne-Huiskes, A., & Anttila, T. (2011). The Institutional context of the quality of life. In: M. Bäck-Wiklund, T. Van der Lippe, L. Den Dulk, & A. Van Doorne-Huiskes (Eds), Quality of life and work in Europe. Theory, practice, and policy. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  36. Kremer, M. (2007). How welfare states care. culture, gender, and parenting in Europe. Utrecht: Amsterdam University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Lei, X. (2006). Grandchild care, financial transfers and grandma’s labor market decisions. Unpublished manuscript, University of California-Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  38. Leibfried, S. (1992). Towards a European welfare state? On integrating poverty regimes in the European Community. In: Ferge, Z. & Kolberg, J. E. (Eds.), Social policy in a changing Europe, Boulder: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  39. Milligan, K., & David, A. W. (2012). Introduction and Summary. In: A. W. David (Ed.), Social Security Programs and Retirement around the World: Historical Trends in Mortality and Health, Employment, and Disability Insurance Participation and Reforms, National Bureau of Economic Research.Google Scholar
  40. Mills, M., Präg, P., Tsang, F., Begall, K., Derbyshire, J., Kohle, L., et al. (2014). Use of childcare services in the EU member states and progress towards the Barcelona targets. Brussels: European Commission DG Justice.Google Scholar
  41. Mingione, E. (2002). Labour market segmentation and informal work. In: H. Gibson (Ed.), Economic transformation, democratization and integration into the European Union. Southern Europe in Comparative Perspective, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  42. OECD. (2012). Closing the gender gap: act now. Paris: OECD Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Petmesidou, M. (1996). Social protection in Southern Europe: trends and prospects. Journal of Area Studies, 9, 95–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Reher, D. S. (1998). Family ties in Western Europe: persistent contrasts. Population and Development Review, 24(2), 203–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Rupert, P., & Zanella, G. (2018). Grandchildren and their grandparents’ labor supply. Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, 159(C), 89–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Saraceno, C. (2000). Gendered policies: family obligations and social policies in Europe. In: T. Boje & A. Leira (Eds), Gender, Welfare State, and the Market. Towards a new division of labour. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  47. Stock, J. H., & Yogo, M. (2005). Testing for weak instruments in linear IV regression. In: D. W. K. Andrews & J. H. Stock (Eds), Identification and inference for econometric models: essays in honor of Thomas Rothenberg (pp. 80–108). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  48. Trifiletti, R. (1999). Southern European welfare regimes and the worsening position of women. Journal of European Social Policy, 9(1), 49–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Van der Klaauw, W. (2003). Estimating the effect of financial aid offers on college enrollment: a regression discontinuity approach. International Economic Review, 43, 1249–1287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Zamarro, G. (2011). Family Labor Participation and Child Care Decisions: The Role of Grannies. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation. https://www.rand.org/pubs/working_papers/WR833.html.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.ESOMAS DepartmentUniversity of TurinTurinItaly

Personalised recommendations