Refractories and Industrial Ceramics

, Volume 59, Issue 1, pp 48–53 | Cite as

Improvement of Physical and Performance Characteristics of Carbon Graphite Lining by Lithium Additives

  • V. Yu. Bazhin
  • A. V. Saitov

The problem of hardening (increasing the stability) of the carbon graphite hearth lining for protection against diffusion of sodium and cryolite-alumina melt (CAM) is discussed. Analytical evaluation showed that the main protection against various kinds of electrolyte effects on the carbon graphite lining is the application of various coatings that have not found wide industrial application due to their failure. It was demonstrated that the addition of lithium to the cryolite-alumina melts has a positive effect on the properties of the carbon graphite hearth lining. It was established that lithium has an active influence on the change in the physical and operational properties of the lining as a result of the intercalation process. The improvement in the properties of the carbon graphite electrolysis cell lining was confirmed by a series of experimental studies carried out with lithium electrolytes.


carbon graphite lining aluminum electrolysis cell electrolysis lithium intercalation electrolyte cathode unit 


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Saint Petersburg Mining UniversitySt. PetersburgRussia

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