We have developed, tested, and installed tuyere blocks that reduce by a factor of 9 the number of joints in horizontal-converter tuyere belts, decrease corrosive wear on the refractory products, and reduce the likelihood of penetration by slag-matte melt. A design was developed for a special refractory product that reduces thermal stress as well as heating time, prevents the products from falling from brick courses in roofs, and sharply diminish thermal losses through the brickwork in open-hearth furnaces as well as ore-roasting furnaces and through the lining in Waelz kilns. These special-design products enabled improvements to the lining performance of the high-temperature units without increasing maintenance costs.
copper-nickel converter lining lining of high-temperature units thermal stress
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