Underwriting Limits and Optimal Leverage in Commercial Real Estate

  • Leo CremerEmail author


Risk-averse commercial mortgage lenders follow an underwriting policy with strict limits based on the property’s value and cash flow. A borrower then chooses the initial loan amount and amortization that fit into these requirements and maximizes the investment’s net present value. For an underwriting policy based on typical mortgage ratios, this optimization problem has a closed-form solution. Applying the formula to loan business data from life insurance companies, fluctuations in market parameters and cash flow-based policy limits can explain the major part of the observed variability in initial leverage. This analysis gives further support to observations that initial leverage is endogenous to the underwriting process, while cash flow-based and forward-looking measures are of primary importance in commercial loan risk management.


Commercial real estate Underwriting Leverage Amortization 



I am grateful to Bernhard Funk and seminar participants of RheinMain University of Applied Sciences for helpful conversations, to the anonymous referees for their valuable suggestions and comments, and to the American Council of Life Insurers for providing data.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.RheinMain University of Applied SciencesWiesbadenGermany

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