Reading and Writing

, Volume 32, Issue 4, pp 1037–1059 | Cite as

Roles of paper-based reading ability and ICT-related skills in online reading performance

  • I-Fang Liu
  • Hwa-Wei KoEmail author


Online reading requires a hybrid of reading and information and communication technology (ICT)-related skills. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of paper-based reading skills and ICT-related skills in online reading and to identify the effects of age on learning online reading. ICT-related skills that investigated in this study were defined as information searching which indicate abilities to locate online information. To verify these relationships, a path analysis model was proposed. The age effect for learning online reading was analyzed through multivariate analysis of variance. In total, 376 children from grades four to six were recruited as participants. A paper-and-pencil reading comprehension test, an online reading test, and a self-reported information searching skill questionnaire were administered. Results showed that paper-based reading and ICT-related skills together could predict almost 50% of online reading performance. However, with respect to online reading, the importance of ICT-related skills was much less than that of paper-based reading skills. Implications of the results are discussed. As for the age factor, it is recommended that an appropriate age for reading and making good use of online information might be around sixth grade.


Elementary education Information searching skills Online reading Traditional reading 


  1. Bilal, D. (2000). Children’s use of the Yahooligans! Web search engine: I. Cognitive, physical, and affective behaviors on fact-based search tasks. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 51(7), 646–665.Google Scholar
  2. Bilal, D. (2001). Children’s use of the Yahooligans! Web search engine: II. Cognitive and physical behaviors on research tasks. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 52(2), 118–136.Google Scholar
  3. Bilal, D., & Kirby, J. (2002). Differences and similarities in information seeking: Children and adults as Web users. Information Processing and Management, 38(5), 649–670.Google Scholar
  4. Bock, R. D., Thissen, D., & Zimowski, M. F. (1997). IRT estimation of domain scores. Journal of Educational Measurement, 34(3), 197–211.Google Scholar
  5. Cain, K., Oakhill, J., & Bryant, P. (2004). Children’s reading comprehension ability: Concurrent prediction by working memory, verbal ability, and component Skills. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96(1), 31–42.Google Scholar
  6. Catts, R., & Lau, J. (2008). Towards information literacy indicators: Conceptual framework paper. Paris: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  7. Chall, J. S. (1996). Stages of reading development (2nd ed.). Forth Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace.Google Scholar
  8. Chen, M. L., & Ko, H. W. (2011). Exploring the eye movement patterns as Chinese children reading texts: A developmental perspective. Journal of Research in Reading, 34(2), 232–246.Google Scholar
  9. Clarke, A., & Englebright, L. (2003). ICT: The new basic skill. Leicester: NIACE.Google Scholar
  10. Claro, M., Preiss, D. D., San Martín, E., Jara, I., Hinostroza, J. E., Valenzuela, S., et al. (2012). Assessment of 21st century ICT skills in Chile: Test design and results from high school level students. Computers & Education, 59(3), 1042–1053.Google Scholar
  11. Coiro, J., & Dobler, E. (2007). Exploring the online reading comprehension strategies used by sixth-grade skilled readers to search for and locate information on the Internet. Reading Research Quarterly, 42(2), 214–257.Google Scholar
  12. Coiro, J., & Kennedy, C. (2011). The online reading comprehension assessment (ORCA) project: Preparing students for common core state standards and 21st century literacies. Storrs, CT: University of Connecticut.Google Scholar
  13. Eisenberg, M. B. (2010). Information literacy: Essential skills for the information age. Journal of Library & Information Technology, 28(2), 39–47.Google Scholar
  14. Eisenberg, M. B., & Johnson, D. (2002). Learning and teaching information technology—Computer skills in context. ERIC Digest. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University, ERIC Clearinghouse on Information & Technology. (ED465377).Google Scholar
  15. Foltz, P. W. (1996). Comprehension, coherence and strategies in hypertext and linear text. In J.-F. Rouet, J. J. Levonen, A. P. Dillon, & R. J. Spiro (Eds.), Hypertext and cognition. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  16. Ford, N., Miller, D., & Moss, N. (2001). The role of individual differences in Internet searching: An empirical study. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 52(12), 1049–1066.Google Scholar
  17. Fraillon, J., Schulz, W., & Ainley, J. (2013). International computer and information literacy study: Assessment framework. Amsterdam: International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA). Retrieved 22 November, 2016 from
  18. Gough, P. B., & Tunmer, W. E. (1986). Decoding, reading, and reading disability. Remedial and Special Education, 7(1), 6–10.Google Scholar
  19. Hatlevik, O. E., Guðmundsdóttir, G. B., & Loi, M. (2015). Examining factors predicting students’ digital competence. Journal of Information Technology Education: Research, 14, 123–137.Google Scholar
  20. Henry, L. A. (2006). SEARCHing for an answer: The critical role of new literacies while reading on the Internet. The Reading Teacher, 59(7), 614–627.Google Scholar
  21. ICT Literacy Panel. (2007). Digital transformation: A framework for ICT literacy. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service.Google Scholar
  22. ISTE. (2007). The national educational technology standards and performance indicators for students. Retrieved 20 August, 2014 from
  23. Jara, I., Claro, M., Hinostroza, J. E., San Martín, E., Rodríguez, P., Cabello, T., et al. (2015). Understanding factors related to Chilean students’ digital skills: A mixed methods analysis. Computers & Education, 88, 387–398.Google Scholar
  24. Karchmer, R. A. (2001). The journey ahead: Thirteen teachers report how the Internet influences literacy and literacy instruction in their K-12 classrooms. Reading Research Quarterly, 36, 442–467.Google Scholar
  25. Kiili, C., Leu, D. J., Marttunen, M., Hautala, J., & Leppänen, P. H. T. (2017). Exploring early adolescents’ evaluation of academic and commercial online resources related to health. Reading and Writing, 31(3), 533–557.Google Scholar
  26. Kim, K. S., & Allen, B. (2002). Cognitive and task influences on Web searching behavior. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 53(2), 109–119.Google Scholar
  27. Kintsch, W. (1988). The role of knowledge in discourse comprehension: A construction-integration model. Psychological Review, 95(2), 163–182.Google Scholar
  28. Kintsch, W. (2005). An overview of top-down and bottom-up effects in comprehension: The CI perspective. Discourse Processes, 39(2–3), 125–128.Google Scholar
  29. Ko, H. W., Chang, Y., Chan, Y. L., & Chiu, C. H. (2017). PIRLS 2016 National Report—Chinese Taipei. Taoyuan: National Central University. (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  30. Kuhlthau, C. C. (1987). Information skills for an information society: A review of research. Syracuse, NY: ERIC.Google Scholar
  31. Kuiper, E., Volman, M., & Terwel, J. (2008). Students’ use of web literacy skills and strategies: searching, reading and evaluating web information. Information Research: An International Electronic Journal, 13(3). Retrieved from
  32. Landerl, K., & Wimmer, H. (2008). Development of word reading fluency and spelling in a consistent orthography: An 8-year follow-up. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100(1), 150–161.Google Scholar
  33. Lesaux, N. K., Rupp, A. A., & Siegel, L. S. (2007). Growth in reading skills of children from diverse linguistic backgrounds: Findings from a 5-year longitudinal study. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99(4), 821–834.Google Scholar
  34. Leu, D. J., Castek, J., Hartman, D., Coiro, J., Henry, L., Kulikowich, J., & Lyver, S. (2005). Evaluating the development of scientific knowledge and new forms of reading comprehension during online learning (Final report presented to the North Central Regional Educational Laboratory/Learning Point Associates). Retrieved 23 May, 2015, from
  35. Leu, D. J., Forzani, E., Rhoads, C., Maykel, C., Kennedy, C., & Timbrell, N. (2015). The new literacies of online research and comprehension: Rethinking the reading achievement gap. Reading Research Quarterly, 50(1), 37–59.Google Scholar
  36. Leu, D. J., Kinzer, C. K., Coiro, J. L., & Cammack, D. W. (2004). Toward a theory of new literacies emerging from the Internet and other information and communication technologies. In R. B. Ruddell & N. Unrau (Eds.), Theoretical models and processes of reading (5th ed., pp. 1570–1613). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.Google Scholar
  37. Lin, B. G., & Chi, P. H. (2002). Test of reading comprehension. Taipei: Ministry of Education. (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  38. Liu, Z. (2005). Reading behavior in the digital environment. Journal of Documentation, 61(6), 700–712.Google Scholar
  39. Liu, I. F. (2015). Developing online reading skill test for evaluating and exploring students’ online reading competences. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, National Central University, Taoyuan, Taiwan. (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  40. Loehlin, J. C. (1998). Latent variable models: An introduction to factor, path, and structural analysis (3rd ed., Vol. xi). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.Google Scholar
  41. Macedo-Rouet, M., Rouet, J. F., Ros, C., & Vibert, N. (2012). How do scientists select articles in the PubMed database? An empirical study of criteria and strategies. Review of Applied Psychology, 62(2), 63–72.Google Scholar
  42. Madden, A. D., Ford, N. J., Miller, D., & Levy, P. (2006). Children’s use of the Internet for information-seeking: What strategies do they use, and what factors affect their performance? Journal of Documentation, 62(6), 744–761.Google Scholar
  43. Minguela, M., Solé, I., & Pieschl, S. (2015). Flexible self-regulated reading as a cue for deep comprehension: Evidence from online and offline measures. Reading and Writing, 28(5), 721–744.Google Scholar
  44. NCREL. (2003). 21st century skills: literacy in the digital age. North Central Regional Educational Laboratory (NCREL). Retrieved 2 October, 2005 from
  45. Obinne, A. D. E. (2013). Test item validity: Item response theory (IRT) perspective for Nigeria. Research Journal in Organizational Psychology and Educational Studies, 2(1), 1–6.Google Scholar
  46. OECD. (2010). PISA 2009 results: What students know and can do—Student performance in reading, mathematics and science (Vol. I). Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
  47. OECD. (2011). PISA 2009 results: Students on line: Digital technologies and performance (Vol. VI). Retrieved December 29, 2013, from
  48. Paris, S. G., & Lindauer, B. K. (1976). The role of inference in children’s comprehension and memory for sentences. Cognitive Psychology, 8(2), 217–227.Google Scholar
  49. Perfetti, C. A., Landi, N., & Oakhill, J. (2005). The acquisition of reading comprehension skill. In M. J. Snowling & C. Hulme (Eds.), The science of reading: A handbook (pp. 227–247). Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  50. Quadri, G. (2012). Impact of ICT skills on the use of e-resources by information professionals: A review of related literature. Library Philosophy and Practice (e-Journal), 762. Retrieved from
  51. Schmar-Dobler, E. (2003). Reading on the Internet: The link between literacy and technology. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 47(1), 80–85.Google Scholar
  52. Siegel, L. S. (1994). Working memory and reading: A life-span perspective. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 17(1), 109–124.Google Scholar
  53. Stahl, S. A., Hynd, C. R., Britton, B. K., McNish, M. M., & Bosquet, D. (1996). What happens when students read multiple source documents in history? Reading Research Quarterly, 31(4), 430–456.Google Scholar
  54. Sung, Y. T., Chang, T. H., Lin, W. C., Hsieh, K. S., & Chang, K. E. (2016). CRIE: An automated analyzer for Chinese texts. Behavior Research Methods, 48(4), 1238–1251.Google Scholar
  55. Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2013). Using multivariate statistics (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.Google Scholar
  56. Thorpe, G. L., & Favia, A. (2012). Data analysis using item response theory methodology: An introduction to selected programs and applications (Psychology Faculty Scholarship Paper 20). Onoro, ME: University of Maine.Google Scholar
  57. Tsai, M. J. (2009). Online Information Searching Strategy Inventory (OISSI): A quick version and a complete version. Computers & Education, 53(2), 473–483.Google Scholar
  58. Urakami, J., & Krems, J. F. (2011). How hypertext reading sequences affect understanding of causal and temporal relations in story comprehension. Instructional Science, 40(2), 277–295.Google Scholar
  59. Van den Broek, P. (1989). Causal reasoning and inference making in judging the importance of story statements. Child Development, 60(2), 286–297.Google Scholar
  60. Verhoeven, L., & van Leeuwe, J. (2008). Prediction of the development of reading comprehension: A longitudinal study. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 22(3), 407–423.Google Scholar
  61. Wallace, R. M., Kupperman, J., Krajcik, J., & Soloway, E. (2000). Science on the Web: Students online in a sixth-grade classroom. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 9(1), 75–104.Google Scholar
  62. Wiley, J., Goldman, S. R., Graesser, A. C., Sanchez, C. A., Ash, I. K., & Hemmerich, J. A. (2009). Source evaluation, comprehension, and learning in Internet science inquiry tasks. American Educational Research Journal, 46(4), 1060–1106.Google Scholar
  63. Zhang, S., Duke, N. K., & Jiménez, L. M. (2011). The WWWDOT approach to improving students’ critical evaluation of websites. The Reading Teacher, 65(2), 150–158.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Yu-Lin Elementary SchoolNew Taipei CityTaiwan, ROC
  2. 2.Graduate Institution of Learning and InstructionNational Central UniversityJhongli CityTaiwan, ROC

Personalised recommendations