Advertisement

Reading and Writing

, Volume 30, Issue 6, pp 1335–1360 | Cite as

Cognitive predictors of literacy acquisition in syllabic Hiragana and morphographic Kanji

  • Tomohiro InoueEmail author
  • George K. Georgiou
  • Naoko Muroya
  • Hisao Maekawa
  • Rauno Parrila
Article

Abstract

We examined the role of different cognitive skills in word reading (accuracy and fluency) and spelling accuracy in syllabic Hiragana and morphographic Kanji. Japanese Hiragana and Kanji are strikingly contrastive orthographies: Hiragana has consistent character-sound correspondences with a limited symbol set, whereas Kanji has inconsistent character-sound correspondences with a large symbol set. One hundred sixty-nine Japanese children were assessed at the beginning of grade 1 on reading accuracy and fluency, spelling, phonological awareness, phonological memory, rapid automatized naming (RAN), orthographic knowledge, and morphological awareness, and on reading and spelling at the middle of grade 1. The results showed remarkable differences in the cognitive predictors of early reading accuracy and spelling development in Hiragana and Kanji, and somewhat lesser differences in the predictors of fluency development. Phonological awareness was a unique predictor of Hiragana reading accuracy and spelling, but its impact was relatively weak and transient. This finding is in line with those reported in consistent orthographies with contained symbol sets such as Finnish and Greek. In contrast, RAN and morphological awareness were more important predictors of Kanji than of Hiragana, and the patterns of relationships for Kanji were similar to those found in inconsistent orthographies with extensive symbol sets such as Chinese. The findings suggested that Japanese children learning two contrastive orthographic systems develop partially separate cognitive bases rather than a single basis for literacy acquisition.

Keywords

Literacy acquisition Japanese Orthographic consistency Size of symbol set 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant No. 26780523 for Tomohiro Inoue. The authors are grateful to the children, parents, teachers, and school personnel who made this study possible. We further thank the following people for their help: Takako Oshiro, Hirofumi Imanaka, Hiroyuki Kitamura, Keiko Shindo, Katsutoshi Sato, Saori Beppu, Miyuki Nagaoka, and Haruka Watanabe.

References

  1. Akamatsu, N. (2005). Literacy acquisition in Japanese–English bilinguals. In R. M. Joshi & P. G. Aaron (Eds.), Handbook of orthography and literacy (pp. 481–496). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  2. Akita, K., & Hatano, G. (1999). Learning to read and write in Japanese. In M. Harris & G. Hatano (Eds.), Learning to read and write: A cross-linguistic perspective (pp. 214–234). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Amano, K. (1988). Phonemic analysis of words and literacy acquisition among children. Annual Report of Educational Psychology in Japan, 27, 142–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Araújo, S., Reis, A., Petersson, K. M., & Faísca, L. (2015). Rapid automatized naming and reading performance: A meta-analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 107, 868–883. doi: 10.1037/edu0000006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Aro, M., & Wimmer, H. (2003). Learning to read: English in comparison to six more regular orthographies. Applied Psycholinguistics, 24, 621–635. doi: 10.1017/S0142716403000316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barker, T. A., Torgesen, J. K., & Wagner, R. K. (1992). The role of orthographic processing skills of five different reading tasks. Reading Research Quarterly, 27, 334–345. doi: 10.2307/747673.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bowers, P. G., & Wolf, M. (1993). Theoretical links among naming speed, precise timing mechanisms and orthographic skills in dyslexia. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 5, 69–85. doi: 10.1007/BF01026919.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Browne, M. W., & Cudeck, R. (1993). Alternative ways in assessing model fit. In K. Bollen & J. S. Long (Eds.), Testing structural equation models (pp. 136–162). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  9. Caravolas, M., Lervåg, A., Mousikou, P., Efrim, C., Litavsky, M., Onochie-Quintanilla, E., et al. (2012). Common patterns of prediction of literacy development in different alphabetic orthographies. Psychological Science, 23, 678–686. doi: 10.1177/0956797611434536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Carlisle, J. F., & Goodwin, A. (2013). Morphemes matter: How morphological knowledge contributes to reading and writing. In C. A. Stone, E. R. Silliman, B. J. Ehren, & G. P. Wallach (Eds.), Handbook of language and literacy: Development and disorders (2nd ed., pp. 265–282). New York, NY: Guilford.Google Scholar
  11. Cho, J.-R., & Chiu, M. M. (2015). Rapid naming in relation to reading and writing in Korean (Hangul), Chinese (Hanja) and English among Korean children: A 1-year longitudinal study. Journal of Research in Reading, 38, 387–404. doi: 10.1111/1467-9817.12020.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chow, B. W.-Y., McBride-Chang, C., & Burgess, S. (2005). Phonological processing skills and early reading abilities in Hong Kong Chinese kindergarteners learning to read English as a second language. Journal of Educational Psychology, 97, 81–87. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.97.1.81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Coulmas, F. (2003). Writing systems: An introduction to their linguistic analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  14. de Jong, P. F., & van der Leij, A. (2003). Developmental changes in the manifestation of a phonological deficit in dyslexic children learning to read a regular orthography. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, 22–40. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.95.1.22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ellis, N. C., Natsume, M., Stavropoulou, K., Hoxhallari, L., Daal, V. H. P., Polyzoe, N., et al. (2004). The effects of orthographic depth on learning to read alphabetic, syllabic, and logographic scripts. Reading Research Quarterly, 39, 438–468. doi: 10.1598/RRQ.39.4.5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Furnes, B., & Samuelsson, S. (2011). Phonological awareness and rapid automatized naming predicting early development in reading and spelling: Results from a cross-linguistic longitudinal study. Learning and Individual Differences, 21, 85–95. doi: 10.1016/j.lindif.2010.10.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Georgiou, G. K., Aro, M., Liao, C.-H., & Parrila, R. (2016). Modeling the relationship between rapid automatized naming and literacy skills across languages varying in orthographic consistency. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 143, 48–64. doi: 10.1016/j.jecp.2015.10.017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Georgiou, G. K., Hirvonen, R., Liao, C.-H., Manolitsis, G., Parrila, R., & Nurmi, J.-E. (2011). The role of achievement strategies on literacy acquisition across languages. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 36, 130–141. doi: 10.1016/j.cedpsych.2011.01.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Georgiou, G. K., Parrila, R., & Papadopoulos, T. C. (2008). Predictors of word decoding and reading fluency across languages varying in orthographic consistency. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100, 566–580. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.100.3.566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Georgiou, G. K., Torppa, M., Manolitsis, G., Lyytinen, H., & Parrila, R. (2012). Longitudinal predictors of reading and spelling across languages varying in orthographic consistency. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 25, 321–346. doi: 10.1007/s11145-010-9271-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Graham, J. W. (2009). Missing data analysis: Making it work in the real world. Annual Review of Psychology, 60, 549–576. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.58.110405.085530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hanley, J. R. (2005). Learning to read in Chinese. In M. J. Snowling & C. Hulme (Eds.), The science of reading: A handbook (pp. 316–335). Oxford: Blackwell.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hayashi, Y., & Murphy, V. A. (2013). On the nature of morphological awareness in Japanese–English bilingual children: A cross-linguistic perspective. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 16, 49–67. doi: 10.1017/S1366728912000181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indices in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 1–55. doi: 10.1080/10705519909540118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Inomata, T., Uno, A., & Haruhara, N. (2013). Investigation of cognitive factors affecting reading and spelling abilities of hiragana characters in kindergarten children. Japan Journal of Logopedics and Phoniatrics, 54, 122–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Inoue, T., Higashibara, F., Okazaki, S., & Maekawa, H. (2012). Relation between reading and phonological processing in children with reading difficulties: Reading latency and articulation time. Japanese Journal of Special Education, 49, 435–444. doi: 10.6033/tokkyou.49.435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Iwata, M. (1984). Kanji versus Kana: Neuropsychological correlates of the Japanese writing system. Trends in Neurosciences, 7, 290–293. doi: 10.1016/S0166-2236(84)80198-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Japan Foundation for Educational and Cultural Research. (1998). Kanji mastery levels for each graders at Japanese elementary school. http://www.jfecr.or.jp/publication/pub-data/kanji/index.html
  29. Japanese WISC-IV Publication Committee. (2010). Japanese version of Wechsler intelligence scale for children (4th ed.). Tokyo: Nihon Bunka Kagakusha.Google Scholar
  30. Juul, H., Poulsen, M., & Elbro, C. (2014). Separating speed from accuracy in beginning reading development. Journal of Educational Psychology, 106, 1096–1106. doi: 10.1037/a0037100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kakihana, S., Ando, J., Koyama, M., Iitaka, S., & Sugawara, I. (2009). Cognitive factors relating to the development early literacy in the Kana syllabary. Japanese Journal of Educational Psychology, 57, 295–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Katz, L., & Frost, R. (1992). The reading process is different for different orthographies: The orthographic depth hypothesis. In R. Frost & L. Katz (Eds.), Orthography, phonology, morphology, and meaning (pp. 67–84). Amsterdam, North-Holland: Elsevier.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kim, Y.-S. (2011). Proximal and distal predictors of reading comprehension: Evidence from young Korean readers. Scientific Studies of Reading, 15, 167–190. doi: 10.1080/10888431003653089.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kirby, J. R., Deacon, S. H., Bowers, P. N., Izenberg, L., Wade-Woolley, L., & Parrila, R. (2012). Children’s morphological awareness and reading ability. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 25, 389–410. doi: 10.1007/s11145-010-9276-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kirby, J. R., Georgiou, G. K., Martinussen, R., & Parrila, R. (2010). Naming speed and reading: From prediction to instruction. Reading Research Quarterly, 45, 341–362. doi: 10.1598/RRQ.45.3.4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kobayashi, M. S., Haynes, C. W., Macaruso, P., Hook, P. E., & Kato, J. (2005). Effects of mora deletion, nonword repetition, rapid naming, and visual search performance on beginning reading in Japanese. Annals of Dyslexia, 55, 105–128. doi: 10.1007/s11881-005-0006-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kobayashi, T., Inagaki, M., Gunji, A., Yatabe, K., Kaga, M., Goto, T., et al. (2010). Developmental changes in reading ability of Japanese elementary school children: Analysis of 4 Kana reading tasks. No To Hattatsu, 42, 15–21. doi: 10.11251/ojjscn.42.15.Google Scholar
  38. Kono, T., Hirabayashi, R., & Nakamura, K. (2009). Handwriting speed and accuracy of Japanese elementary school students when writing from dictation. Japanese Journal of Special Education, 46, 269–278.Google Scholar
  39. Koyama, M. S., Hansen, P. C., & Stein, J. F. (2008). Logographic Kanji versus phonographic Kana in literacy acquisition. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1145, 41–55. doi: 10.1196/annals.1416.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Landerl, K., & Wimmer, H. (2008). Development of word reading fluency and spelling in a consistent orthography: An 8-year follow-up. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100, 150–161. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.100.1.150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Leppänen, U., Nieme, P., Aunola, K., & Nurmi, J.-E. (2006). Development of reading and spelling Finnish from preschool to Grade 1 and Grade 2. Scientific Studies of Reading, 10, 3–30. doi: 10.1207/s1532799xssr1001_2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lervåg, A., Bråten, I., & Hulme, C. (2009). The cognitive and linguistic foundations of early reading development: A Norwegian latent variable longitudinal study. Developmental Psychology, 45, 764–781. doi: 10.1037/a0014132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Li, H., Shu, H., McBride-Chang, C., Liu, H., & Peng, H. (2012). Chinese children’s character recognition: Visuo-orthographic, phonological processing and morphological skills. Journal of Research in Reading, 35, 287–307. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9817.2010.0146208.7x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. MacKinnon, D. P., Fairchild, A. J., & Fritz, M. S. (2007). Mediation analysis. Annual Review of Psychology, 58, 593–614. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.58.110405.085542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Mann, V., & Wimmer, H. (2002). Phoneme awareness and pathways into literacy: A comparison of German and American children. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 15, 653–682. doi: 10.1023/A:1020984704781.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. McBride-Chang, C., Cho, J.-R., Liu, H., Wagner, R. K., Shu, H., Zhou, A., et al. (2005). Changing models across cultures: Associations of phonological awareness and morphological structure awareness with vocabulary and word recognition in second graders from Beijing, Hong Kong, Korea, and the United States. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 92, 140–160. doi: 10.1016/j.jecp.2005.03.009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. McBride-Chang, C., & Kail, R. V. (2002). Cross-cultural similarities in the predictors of reading acquisition. Child Development, 73, 1392–1407. doi: 10.1111/1467-8624.00479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Mikami, H., Nohara, Y., & Tanabe, M. (2008a). Research on learning letters and reading readiness in early childhood. Bulletin of Nagoya University of Arts, 29, 345–365.Google Scholar
  49. Mikami, H., Nohara, Y., & Tanabe, M. (2008b). Study on the ability necessary to preparation for learning in the primary school (3). Bulletin of Nagoya University of Arts Junior College, 40, 23–30.Google Scholar
  50. Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications. (2011). 2010 Population Census. http://www.e-stat.go.jp/SG1/estat/List.do?bid=000001034991&cycode=0
  51. Moll, K., Ramus, F., Bartling, J., Bruder, J., Kunze, S., Neuhoff, N., et al. (2014). Cognitive mechanisms underlying reading and spelling development in five European orthographies. Learning and Instruction, 29, 65–77. doi: 10.1016/j.learninstruc.2013.09.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (1998–2015). Mplus user’s guide (7th ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.Google Scholar
  53. Nag, S. (2007). Early reading in Kannada: The pace of acquisition of orthographic knowledge and phonemic awareness. Journal of Research in Reading, 30, 7–22. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9817.2006.00329.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Nag, S. (2014). Alphabetism and the science of reading: From the perspective of the akshara languages. Frontiers in Psychology, 5(866), 1–3. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00866/full.Google Scholar
  55. Nag, S., Caravolas, M., & Snowling, M. J. (2011). Beyond alphabetic processes: Literacy and its acquisition in the alphasyllabic languages. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 24, 615–622. doi: 10.1007/s11145-010-9259-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Nag, S., & Snowling, M. J. (2012). Reading in an alphasyllabary: Implications for a language universal theory of learning to read. Scientific Studies of Reading, 16, 404–423. doi: 10.1080/10888438.2011.576352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Nag, S., Treiman, R., & Snowling, M. J. (2010). Learning to spell in alphasyllabary: The case of Kannada. Writing Systems Research, 2, 41–52. doi: 10.1093/wsr/wsq001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. National Institute for Japanese Language and Linguistics. (1972). Reading and writing ability in pre-school children. Tokyo: Tokyo Shoseki.Google Scholar
  59. National Nursery Teachers Training Council. (2015). Data on early childhood education. http://www.hoyokyo.or.jp/nursing_hyk/reference/27-2s7-10.pdf
  60. Nielsen, A.-M. V., & Juul, H. (2016). Predictors of early versus later spelling development in Danish. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 29, 245–266. doi: 10.1007/s11145-015-9591-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Nikolopoulos, D., Goulandris, N., Hulme, C., & Snowling, M. J. (2006). The cognitive bases of learning to read and spell in Greek: Evidence from a longitudinal study. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 94, 1–17. doi: 10.1016/j.jecp.2005.11.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Park, H.-R., & Uno, A. (2015). Cognitive abilities underlying reading accuracy, fluency and spelling acquisition in Korean Hangul learners from Grades 1 to 4: A cross-sectional study. Dyslexia, 21, 235–253. doi: 10.1002/dys.1500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Parrila, R. K., Kirby, J. R., & McQuarrie, L. (2004). Articulation rate, naming speed, verbal short-term memory, and phonological awareness: Longitudinal predictors of early reading development? Scientific Studies of Reading, 8, 3–26. doi: 10.1207/s1532799xssr0801_2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Patel, T. K., Snowling, M. J., & de Jong, P. F. (2004). A cross-linguistic comparison of children learning to read in English and Dutch. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96, 785–797. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.96.4.785.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Perfetti, C., Cao, F., & Booth, J. R. (2013). Specialization and universals in the development of reading skill: How Chinese research informs a universal science of reading. Scientific Studies of Reading, 17, 5–21. doi: 10.1080/10888438.2012.689786.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Plaza, M., & Cohen, H. (2007). The contribution of phonological awareness and visual attention in early reading and spelling. Dyslexia, 13, 67–76. doi: 10.1002/dys.330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Research Group for Formulation of Diagnostic Criteria and Medical Guideline for Specific Developmental Disorders (Ed.). (2010). Diagnostic criteria and medical guideline for specific developmental disorders. Tokyo: Shindan To Chiryosha.Google Scholar
  68. Sambai, A., Uno, A., Kurokawa, S., Haruhara, N., Kaneko, M., Awaya, N., et al. (2012). An investigation into kana reading development in normal and dyslexic Japanese children using length and lexicality effects. Brain and Development, 34, 520–528. doi: 10.1016/j.braindev.2011.09.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Seymour, P. H. K., Aro, M., & Erskine, J. M. (2003). Foundation literacy acquisition in European orthographies. British Journal of Psychology, 94, 143–174. doi: 10.1348/000712603321661859.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Shrout, P. E., & Bolger, N. (2002). Mediation in experimental and nonexperimental studies: New procedures and recommendations. Psychological Methods, 7, 422–445. doi: 10.1037/1082-989X.7.4.422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Shu, H., McBride-Chang, C., Wu, S., & Liu, H. (2006). Understanding Chinese developmental dyslexia: Morphological awareness as a core cognitive construct. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98, 122–133. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.98.1.122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Smith, J. S. (1996). Japanese writing. In P. T. Daniels & W. Bright (Eds.), The world’s writing systems (pp. 209–217). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  73. Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2012). Using multivariate statistics (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.Google Scholar
  74. Tajima, K. (1989). Computer and kanji. In K. Sato (Ed.), Kanji koza (Lectures on kanji) (Vol. 11, pp. 229–257)., Kanji to kokuji mondai (Kanji and the problems of the national language) Tokyo: Meijishoin.Google Scholar
  75. Taylor, I., & Taylor, M. (2014). Writing and literacy in Chinese, Korean, and Japanese: Studies in written language and literacy 14 (2nd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
  76. Torppa, M., Lyytinen, P., Erskine, J., Eklund, K., & Lyytinen, H. (2010). Language development, literacy skills, and predictive connections to reading in Finnish children with and without familial risk for dyslexia. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 43, 308–321. doi: 10.1177/0022219410369096.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Uno, A., Wydell, T. N., Haruhara, N., Kaneko, M., & Shinya, N. (2009). Relationship between reading/writing skills and cognitive abilities among Japanese primary-school children: normal readers versus poor readers (dyslexics). Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 22, 755–789. doi: 10.1007/s11145-008-9128-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Vaessen, A., Bertrand, D., Tóth, D., Csépe, V., Faísca, L., Reis, A., et al. (2010). Cognitive development of fluent word reading does not qualitatively differ between transparent and opaque orthographies. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102, 827–842. doi: 10.1037/a0019465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Vaessen, A., & Blomert, L. (2013). The cognitive linkage and divergence of spelling and reading development. Scientific Studies of Reading, 17, 89–107. doi: 10.1080/10888438.2011.614665.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Verhagen, W. G. M., Aarnoutse, C. A. J., & van Leeuwe, J. F. J. (2009). Spelling and word recognition in Grades 1 and 2: Relations to phonological awareness and naming speed in Dutch children. Applied Psycholinguistics, 31, 59–80. doi: 10.1017/S0142716409990166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Wijayathilake, M. A. D. K., & Parrila, R. (2014). Predictors of word reading skills in good and struggling readers in Sinhala. Writing Systems Research, 6, 120–131. doi: 10.1080/17586801.2013.846844.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Xue, J., Shu, H., Li, H., Li, W., & Tian, X. (2013). The stability of literacy-related cognitive contributions to Chinese character naming and reading fluency. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 42, 433–450. doi: 10.1007/s10936-012-9228-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Yeung, P.-S., Ho, C. S.-H., Chik, P. P.-M., Lo, L.-Y., Luan, H., Chan, D. W.-O., et al. (2011). Reading and spelling Chinese among beginning readers: What skills make a difference? Scientific Studies of Reading, 15, 285–313. doi: 10.1080/10888438.2010.482149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Ziegler, J. C., Bertrand, D., Toth, D., Csépe, V., Reis, A., Faisca, L., et al. (2010). Orthographic depth and its impact on universal predictors of reading: A cross-language investigation. Psychological Science, 21, 551–559. doi: 10.1177/0956797610363406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Ziegler, J. C., Perry, C., Ma-Wyatt, A., Ladner, D., & Schulte-Körne, G. (2003). Developmental dyslexia in different languages: Language-specific or universal? Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 86, 169–193. doi: 10.1016/S0022-0965(03)00139-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Developmental Child Psychology DepartmentSeigakuin UniversityAgeoJapan
  2. 2.Department of Educational PsychologyUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada
  3. 3.Department of Early Childhood Education and NurtureTokiwa Junior CollegeMitoJapan
  4. 4.Department of Early Childhood EducationIwaki Junior CollegeIwakiJapan

Personalised recommendations