Reading and Writing

, Volume 29, Issue 2, pp 183–205 | Cite as

A school-based phonological awareness intervention for struggling readers in early French immersion

  • Nancy Wise
  • Nadia D’Angelo
  • Xi ChenEmail author


The current intervention study investigated the sustained effectiveness of phonological awareness training on the reading development of 16 children in French immersion who were identified as at-risk readers based on grade 1 English measures. The intervention program provided children from three cohorts with supplemental reading in small groups on a withdrawal basis. Children in the experimental group (n = 5) received English phonological awareness training in combination with letter-sound correspondence instruction twice per week for 18 consecutive weeks, while those in the control condition (n = 7) engaged in English vocabulary-building activities. Significant gains were made after the training and maintained for 2 years on both French phonological awareness and French word reading skills for the experimental group. Results suggest that a phonologically based intervention in English can effectively address phonological awareness deficits and facilitate reading acquisition for French immersion children who may be at-risk for later reading difficulties.


Phonological awareness French immersion Early intervention Early identification Reading achievement 



The research reported in this manuscript was supported by a Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council (SSHRC) of Canada Insight Grant to the third author.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Applied Psychology and Human DevelopmentOntario Institute for Studies in Education, University of TorontoTorontoCanada

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