Lexical classification and spelling: Do people use atypical spellings for atypical pseudowords?
- 298 Downloads
Many English phonemes have more than one possible spelling. People’s choices among the options may be influenced by sublexical patterns, such as the identity of neighboring sounds within the word. However, little research has explored the possible role of lexical conditioning. Three experiments examined the potential effects of one such factor: whether an item is typical of English or atypical. In Experiment 1, we asked whether presenting pseudowords as made-up words or the names of monsters would cause participants to classify them as atypical and spell phonemes within these pseudowords using less common patterns. This was not found to be the case in children (aged 7–12 years) or adults. In Experiment 2, children aged 10–12 and adults spelled pseudowords that contained phonologically frequent or infrequent sequences and, in Experiment 3, adults chose between two possible spellings of each of these pseudowords. Adults, but not children, used more common spellings in pseudowords that contained frequent sequences and that thus seemed more typical of English. They used fewer common spellings in pseudowords that contained infrequent sequences and therefore seemed atypical. These results suggest that properties of pseudowords themselves can affect lexical classification and hence spelling.
KeywordsSpelling Orthography Lexical classification Pseudowords Children Adults
We thank Brad Mertens for help with the third experiment, and we are grateful to all of the child and adult participants for participating in our tasks.
- Albrow, K. H. (1972). The English writing system: Notes towards a description. London: Longman.Google Scholar
- Bates, D., Maechler, M., & Bolker, B. (2011). lme4: Linear mixed-effects models using S4 classes. R package version 0.999375-41. http://CRAN.R-Project.org/package=lme4.
- Kohler, C. T., Bahr, R. H., Silliman, E. R., Bryant, J. B., Apel, K., & Wilkinson, S. C. (2007). African American English dialect and performance on nonword spelling and phonemic awareness tasks. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 16, 157–168. doi: 10.1044/1058-0360(2007/020.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Treiman, R., Kessler, B., Knewasser, S., Tincoff, R., & Bowman, M. (2000). English speakers’ sensitivity to phonotactic patterns. In M. B. Broe & J. B. Pierrehumbert (Eds.), Papers in laboratory phonology V: Acquisition and the lexicon (pp. 269–282). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar