Reading and Writing

, Volume 27, Issue 9, pp 1603–1618 | Cite as

Reliability and validity of the CTOPP Elision and Blending Words subtests for struggling adult readers

  • Alice O. NandaEmail author
  • Daphne Greenberg
  • Robin D. Morris


Almost half of American adults struggle with reading but there is a dearth of reading-related assessments for these adults. In turn, researchers and practitioners use assessments designed for children with these adults. This study examined the psychometric and descriptive attributes of the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP) Elision and Blending Words subtests with struggling adult readers. The sample included 207 native English speaking adults reading between the third- and fifth-grade levels. Analyses included comparisons of struggling adult readers to the CTOPP norm group. Results revealed lower overall performance and reliability and validity for struggling adult readers compared to the norm group. In addition, analyses included comparisons of performance, reliability, and validity within the group of struggling adult readers by age. The older adults had lower overall performance as well as more questionable reliability and validity. This study raises concern about administering and interpreting Elision and Blending Words subtests with struggling adult readers.


Adult literacy Reading Phonological awareness Learning disability Test reliability and validity CTOPP 



This paper represents part of a larger study that was supported by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the National Institute for Literacy, and the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Vocational and Adult Education—grant # R01 HD43801.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alice O. Nanda
    • 1
    Email author
  • Daphne Greenberg
    • 2
  • Robin D. Morris
    • 3
  1. 1. Georgia State UniversityAtlantaUSA
  2. 2.Educational Psychology and Special Education, College of EducationGeorgia State UniversityAtlantaUSA
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyGeorgia State UniversityAtlantaUSA

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