Advertisement

Reading and Writing

, Volume 27, Issue 2, pp 287–313 | Cite as

Exploring the variety of parental talk during shared book reading and its contributions to preschool language and literacy: evidence from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort

  • Annemarie H. Hindman
  • Lori E. Skibbe
  • Tricia D. Foster
Article

Abstract

Although many studies have explored shared book reading between preschoolers and their families, very few have examined this practice within a large, nationally representative sample. Using the ECLS-B dataset, this study investigated shared reading among nearly 700 families of diverse ethnic, linguistic, and socioeconomic backgrounds. Coding of families’ book-related discussion focused on the variety of types of talk that parents used during reading. Results showed that parents focused primarily on the meaning of the story, with little attention to the code of the text. The range of talk techniques that parents used was largely independent of background factors such as child gender, ethnicity, or age, as well as family home language. A wider variety of meaning-related remarks by parents was linked to more advanced language skills among preschoolers. Findings provide a portrait of the nature of shared book reading discussion among American families, a profile of the background factors that are linked to this talk, and a precise account of the unique contributions of this talk to key emergent language and literacy competencies.

Keywords

Book reading Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort Language Literacy Preschool 

References

  1. Adams, M. J. (1990). Beginning to read: Thinking and learning about print. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  2. Anderson, R. C., Hiebert, E. H., Scott, J. A., & Wilkinson, I. A. G. (1985). Becoming a nation of readers: The report of the Commission on Reading. Washington, DC: National Academy of Education, Commission on Education and Public Policy.Google Scholar
  3. Andreassen, C., & Fletcher, P. (2007). Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), psychometric report for the 2-year data collection (NCES 2007–084). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics.Google Scholar
  4. Andreassen, C., Fletcher, P., & West, J. (2005). Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), methodology report for the 9-month data collection (2001–02), volume 1: Psychometric characteristics (NCES 2005–100). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics.Google Scholar
  5. Baker, L., Scher, D., & Mackler, K. (1997). Home and family influences on motivations for literacy. Educational Psychologist, 32, 69–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bayley, N. (1993). Bayley Scales of Infant Development-Second Edition (BSID-II). San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  7. Biemiller, A. (2004). Teaching vocabulary in the primary grades: Vocabulary instruction needed. In J. F. Baumann & E. J. Kame’enui (Eds.), Vocabulary instruction: Research to practice (pp. 28–40). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  8. Burchinal, M., Vernon-Feagans, L., & Cox, M. (2008). Cumulative social risk, parenting, and infant development in rural low-income communities. Parenting: Science and Practice, 8(1), 41–69. doi: 10.1080/15295190701830672.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Burns, M. S., Griffin, P., & Snow, C. E. (1999). Starting out right: A guide to promoting children’s reading success. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  10. Bus, A. G. (2001). Parent-child book reading through the lens of attachment theory. In L. Verhoeven & C. Snow (Eds.), Literacy and motivation: Reading engagement in individuals and groups (pp. 39–53). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  11. Bus, A. G., Leseman, P. P. M., & Keultjes, P. (2000). Joint book reading across cultures: A comparison of Surinamese-Dutch, Turkins-Dutch, and Dutch parent-chlid dyads. Journal of Literacy Research, 32(1), 53–76. doi: 10.1080/10862960009548064.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bus, A. G., van IJzendoorn, M. H., & Pelligrini, A. D. (1995). Joint book reading makes for success in learning to read: A meta-analysis on intergenerational transmission of literacy. Review of Educational Research, 65, 1–21. doi: 10.3102/00346543065001001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Castro, D. C., Espinosa, L. M., & Páez, M. M. (2011). Defining and measuring quality in early childhood practices that promote dual language learners’ development and learning. In M. Zaslow, I. Martinez-Beck, & K. Tout (Eds.), Quality measurement in early childhood settings (pp. 257–280). Baltimore, MD: Brookes.Google Scholar
  14. Catts, H. W., Fey, M. E., Tomblin, J. B., & Zhang, X. (2002). A longitudinal investigation of reading outcomes in children with language impairments. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 45(6), 1142–1157. doi: 10.1044/1092-4388(2002/093).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Child Trends. (2010). Reading to young children. Retrieved from www.childtrendsdatabank.org/?q=node/274.
  16. Connor, C. M., Morrison, F. J., & Slominski, L. (2006). Preschool instruction and children’s emergent literacy growth. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98(4), 665–689. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.98.4.665.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Crain-Thoreson, C., & Dale, P. S. (1999). Enhancing linguistic performance: Parents and teachers as book reading partners for children with language delays. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 19(1), 28–39. doi: 10.1177/027112149901900103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Crosnoe, R., Leventhal, T., Wirth, R. J., Pierce, K. M., Pianta, R. C., & NICHD-ECCRN. (2010). Family socioeconomic status and consistent environmental stimulation in early childhood. Child Development, 81(3), 972–987. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2010.01446.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dale, P. S., Crain-Thoreson, C., Notari-Syverson, A., & Cole, K. (1996). Parent-child book reading as an intervention technique for young children with language delays. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 16(2), 213–235. doi: 10.1177/027112149601600206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Davis, B. J., Evans, M. A., & Reynolds, K. P. (2010). Child miscues and parental feedback during shared alphabet book reading and relations with child literacy skills. Scientific Studies of Reading, 14(4), 341–364. doi: 10.1080/10888431003623504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. DeTemple, J. M., & Snow, C. (2003). Learning words from books. In A. van Kleeck, S. A. Stahl, & E. B. Bauer (Eds.), On reading books to children: Parents and teachers (pp. 16–37). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  22. Dickinson, D. K., & Tabors, P. O. (Eds.). (2001). Beginning literacy with language: Young children learning at home and school. Baltimore, MD: Brookes.Google Scholar
  23. Dolezal-Sams, J. M., Nordquist, V. M., & Twardosz, S. (2009). Home environment and family resources to support literacy interaction: Examples from families of children with disabilities. Early Education and Development, 20(4), 603–630. doi: 10.1080/10409280802356661.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dunn, L. M., & Dunn, L. M. (1998). Peabody picture vocabulary test-III. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Services.Google Scholar
  25. Elley, W. B. (1989). Vocabulary acquisition from listening to stories. Reading Research Quarterly, 24, 174–187. doi: 10.2307/747863.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Evans, M. A., Reynolds, K., Shaw, D., & Pursoo, T. (2011). Parental explanations of vocabulary during shared book reading: A missed opportunity. First Language, 31(2), 195–213. doi: 10.1177/0142723710393795.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Evans, M. A., & Saint-Aubin, J. (2005). What children are looking at during shared storybook reading. Psychological Science, 16(11), 913–920. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2005.01636.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Evans, M. A., Saint-Aubin, J., & Landry, N. (2009). Letter names and alphabet book reading by senior kindergarteners: An eye movement study. Child Development, 80(6), 1824–1841. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2009.01370.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Evans, M. A., Shaw, D., & Bell, M. (2000). Home literacy activities and their influence on early literacy skills. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 54, 65–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ezell, H. K., & Justice, L. M. (2000). Increasing the print focus of adult-child shared book reading through observational learning. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 9, 36–47.Google Scholar
  31. Freeman, D. (1968). Corduroy. New York, NY: Puffin.Google Scholar
  32. Ganea, P. A., Pickard, M. B., & DeLoache, J. S. (2008). Transfer between picture books and the real world by very young children. Journal of Cognition and Development, 9(1), 46–66. doi: 10.1080/15248370701836592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Girolametto, L., Weitzman, E., van Leishout, R., & Duff, D. (2000). Directiveness in teachers’ language input to toddlers and preschoolers in day care. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 43(5), 1101–1114.Google Scholar
  34. Goodsitt, J. G., Raitan, J. G., & Perlmutter, M. (1988). Interaction between mothers and preschool children when reading a novel and familiar books. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 11, 489–505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Goodson, B. D., Layzer, C. I., Smith, W. C., & Rimzdius, T. (2004). Observation measure of language and literacy instruction (OMLIT). Cambridge, MA: Abt Associates, Inc.Google Scholar
  36. Hammer, C. S., Farkas, G., & Maczuga, S. (2010). The language and literacy development of Head Start children: A study using the Family and Child Experiences Survey database. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 41(1), 70–83. doi: 10.1044/0161-1461(2009/08-0050.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hammill, D. D. (2004). What do we know about correlates of reading? Exceptional Children, 70(4), 453–468.Google Scholar
  38. Hart, B., & Risley, T. R. (1995). Meaningful differences in the everyday experience of young American children. Baltimore, MD: Brookes.Google Scholar
  39. Hart, B., & Risley, T. R. (1999). The social world of children: Learning to talk. Baltimore, MD: Brookes.Google Scholar
  40. Hayes, D., & Ahrens, M. (1988). Vocabulary simplification for children: A special case of motherese. Journal of Child Language, 15, 395–410. doi: 10.1017/S0305000900012411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hill, N. E., Castellino, D. R., Lansford, J. E., Nowlin, P., Dodge, K. A., Bates, J. E., et al. (2004). Parent academic involvement as related to school behavior, achievement, and aspirations: Demographic variations across adolescence. Child Development, 75(5), 1491–1509. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2004.00753.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hill, N. E., & Craft, S. A. (2003). Parent–school involvement and school performance: Mediated pathways among socioeconomically comparable African-American and Euro-American families. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95(1), 74–83. doi: 10.1037//0022-0663.95.1.74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hindman, A. H., Connor, C. M., Jewkes, A. M., & Morrison, F. J. (2008). Untangling the effects of shared book reading: Multiple factors at home and school and associations with preschool literacy outcomes. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 23, 330–350. doi: 10.1016/j.ecresq.2008.01.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hindman, A. H., Miller, A., Froyen, L., & Skibbe, L. E. (2012a). Understanding family involvement in Head Start: Insight from the FACES data. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 27, 654–667. doi: 10.1016/j.ecresq.2011.11.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hindman, A. H., Wasik, B. A., & Erhart, A. L. (2012b). Shared book reading and Head Start preschoolers’ vocabulary learning: The role of book-related discussion and curricular connections. Early Education and Development, 23(4), 451–474. doi: 10.1080/10409289.2010.537250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hoff, E. (2003). The specificity of environmental influence: Socioeconomic status affects early vocabulary development via maternal speech. Child Development, 74(5), 1368–1378. doi: 10.1111/1467-8624.00612.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hood, M., Conlon, E., & Andrews, G. (2008). Preschool home literacy practices and children’s literacy development: A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100(2), 252–271. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.100.2.252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Huttenlocher, J., Haight, W., Bryk, A., Seltzer, M., & Lyons, T. (1991). Early vocabulary growth: Relations to language input and gender. Developmental Psychology, 27(2), 236–248. doi: 10.1037//0012-1649.27.2.236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Judkins, D., St. Pierre, R., Gutmann, B., Goodson, B., von Glatz, A., Hamilton, J., et al. (2008). A study of classroom literacy interventions and outcomes in Even Start executive summary (NCEE 2008–4029). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education.Google Scholar
  50. Justice, L., Bowles, R., & Skibbe, L. (2006a). Measuring preschool attainment of print-concept knowledge: A study of typical and at-risk 3- to 5-year-old children. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 37, 224–235. doi: 10.1044/0161-1461(2006/024.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Justice, L. M., & Ezell, H. K. (2002). Use of storybook reading to increase print awareness in at-risk children. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 11, 17–29. doi: 10.1044/1058-0360(2002/003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Justice, L. M., & Kadaverek, J. (2002). Shared storybook reading as an intervention context: Practices and potential pitfalls. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 11(4), 395–406. doi: 10.1044/1058-0360(2002/043.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Justice, L. M., Pullen, P. C., & Pence, K. (2008). Influence of verbal and nonverbal references to print on preschoolers’ visual attention to print during storybook reading. Developmental Psychology, 44(3), 855–866. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.44.3.855.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Justice, L. M., Skibbe, L., Canning, A., & Lankford, C. (2005). Pre-schoolers, print and storybooks: An observational study using eye movement analysis. Journal of Research in Reading, 28(3), 229–243. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9817.2005.00267.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Justice, L. M., Skibbe, L. E., & Ezell, H. (2006b). Using print referencing to promote written language awareness. In T. A. Ukrainetz (Ed.), Contextualized language intervention: Scaffolding preK-12 literacy achievement (pp. 389–428). Greenville, SC: Thinking Publications University.Google Scholar
  56. Justice, L. M., Skibbe, L. E., McGinty, A. S., Piasta, S. B., & Petrill, S. (2011). Feasibility, efficacy, and social validity of home-based storybook reading intervention for children with language impairment. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 54(2), 523–538. doi: 10.1044/1092-4388(2010/09-0151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Korat, O., & Blau, H. (2010). Repeated reading of CD-ROM storybook as a support for emergent literacy: A developmental perspective in two SES groups. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 43(4), 445–466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Lonigan, C. J., Anthony, J. L., Bloomfield, B. G., Dyer, S. M., & Samwell, C. S. (1999). Effects of two shared-reading interventions on emergent literacy skills of at-risk preschoolers. Journal of Early Intervention, 22(4), 306–322. doi: 10.1177/105381519902200406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Lonigan, C., Wagner, R., Torgeson, J., & Rashotte, C. (2002). Preschool Comprehensive Test of Phonological and Print Processing (Pre-CTOPPP). Tallahassee, FL: Department of Psychology, Florida State University.Google Scholar
  60. Lonigan, C. J., & Whitehurst, G. J. (1998). Relative efficacy of parent and teacher involvement in a shared-reading intervention for preschool children from low-income backgrounds. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 13, 263–290. doi: 10.1016/S0885-2006(99)80038-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Marvin, C., & Mirenda, P. (1993). Home literacy experiences of preschoolers enrolled in Head Start and special education programs. Journal of Early Intervention, 17(4), 351–367. doi: 10.1177/105381519301700402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Mol, S. E., Bus, A. G., de Jong, M. T., & Smeets, D. J. H. (2008). Added value of dialogic parent–child book readings: A meta-analysis. Early Education & Development, 19(1), 7–26. doi: 10.1080/10409280701838603.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Najarian, M., Snow, K., Lennon, J., & Kinsey, S. (2010). Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), preschool–kindergarten 2007 psychometric report (NCES 2010–009). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education.Google Scholar
  64. National Early Literacy Panel (NELP). (2009). Developing early literacy: Report of the National Early Literacy Panel, executive summary. Washington, DC: National Institute for Literacy.Google Scholar
  65. Ninio, A. (1980). Picture-book reading in mother–infant dyads belonging to two subgroups in Israel. Child Development, 51(2), 587–590. doi: 10.2307/1129299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Pellegrini, A. D., McGillicuddy-DeLisi, A. V., Sigel, I. E., & Brody, G. H. (1986). The effects of children’s communicative status and task on parents’ teaching strategies. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 11, 240–252. doi: 10.1016/0361-476X(86)90020-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Piaget, J. (1973). Memory and intelligence. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  68. Piasta, S. B., Justice, L. M., McGinty, A. S., & Kadaverek, J. N. (2012). Increasing young children’s contact with print during shared reading: Longitudinal effects on literacy achievement. Child Development, 83(3), 810–820. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2012.01754.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Price, L. H., van Kleeck, A., & Huberty, C. J. (2009). Talk during book sharing between parents and preschool children: A comparison between storybook and expository book conditions. Reading Research Quarterly, 44, 171–194. doi: 10.1598/RRQ.44.2.4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Raikes, H., Luze, G., Brooks-Gunn, J., Raikes, H. A., Pan, B. A., Tamis-LeMonda, C. S., et al. (2006). Mother-child bookreading in low-income families: Correlates and outcomes during the first three years of life. Child Development, 77(4), 924–953. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2006.00911.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Ready, D. D., LoGerfo, L. F., Burkam, D. T., & Lee, V. E. (2005). Explaining girls’ advantage in kindergarten literacy learning: Do classroom behaviors make a difference? Elementary School Journal, 106(1), 21–38. doi: 10.1086/496905.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Reese, E., & Cox, A. (1999). Quality of adult book reading affects children’s emergent literacy. Developmental Psychology, 35(1), 20–28. doi: 10.1037//0012-1649.35.1.20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Sajaniemi, N., Hakamies-Blomquist, L., Katainen, S., & von Wendt, L. (2001). Early cognitive and behavioral predictors of later performance: A follow-up study of ELBW children from ages 2 to 4. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 16, 343–361. doi: 10.1016/S0885-2006(01)00107-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Sandstrom, H., Moodie, S., & Halle, T. (2011). Beyond classroom-based measures for preschoolers: Addressing the gaps in measures for home-based care and care for infants and toddlers. In M. Zaslow, I. Martinez-Beck, & K. Tout (Eds.), Quality measurement in early childhood settings (pp. 257–280). Baltimore, MD: Brookes.Google Scholar
  75. Scarborough, H. S., & Dobrich, W. (1994). On the efficacy of reading to preschoolers. Developmental Review, 14, 245–302. doi: 10.1006/drev.1994.1010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Sénéchal, M. (1997). The differential effect of storybook reading on preschooler’s acquisition of expressive and receptive vocabulary. Journal of Child Language, 24, 123–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Sénéchal, M. (2006). Testing the home literacy model: Parent involvement in kindergarten is differentially related to grade 4 reading comprehension, fluency, spelling, and reading for pleasure. Scientific Studies of Reading, 10(1), 59–87. doi: 10.1207/s1532799xssr1001_4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Sénéchal, M., LeFevre, J., Thomas, E. H., & Daley, K. E. (1998). Differential effects of home literacy experiences on the development or oral and written language. Reading Research Quarterly, 33(1), 96–116. doi: 10.1598/RRQ.33.1.5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Sénéchal, M., Pagan, S., Lever, R., & Ouellette, G. P. (2008). Relations among the frequency of shared reading and 4-year-old children’s vocabulary, morphological and syntax comprehension, and narrative skills. Early Education & Development, 19(1), 27–44. doi: 10.1080/10409280701838710.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Skibbe, L. E., Justice, L. M., Zucker, T. M., & McGinty, A. S. (2008). Relations among maternal literacy beliefs, home literacy practices, and the emergent literacy skills of preschoolers with specific language impairment. Early Education & Development, 19(1), 68–88. doi: 10.1080/10409280701839015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Skibbe, L. E., Moody, A. J., Justice, L. M., & McGinty, A. S. (2010). Socio-emotional climate of storybook reading interactions for mothers and preschoolers with language impairment. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 23(1), 53–71. doi: 10.1007/s11145-008-9149-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. United States Department of Education (US DOE). (2003). Reading tips for parents. Washington, DC: Authors.Google Scholar
  83. United States Department of Education (US DOE). (2005). Helping your child become a reader. Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  84. van Kleeck, A., Gillam, R. B., Hamilton, L., & McGrath, C. (1997). The relationship between middle-class parents’ book-sharing discussion and their preschoolers’ abstract language development. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 40(6), 1267–1271.Google Scholar
  85. Vygotsky, L. (1978). Mind and society. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  86. Wasik, B. A., & Bond, M. A. (2001). Beyond the pages of a book: Interactive book reading and language development in preschool classrooms. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93(2), 243–250. doi: 10.1037//0022-0663.93.2.243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. What Works Clearinghouse. (2006). Shared book reading. Retrieved from http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/pdf/intervention_reports/WWC_ISBR_011807.pdf.
  88. Wood, C. (2002). Parent-child pre-school activities can affect the development of literacy skills. Journal of Research in Reading, 25(3), 241–258. doi: 10.1111/1467-9817.00173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Yaden, D. B., Smolkin, L. B., & MacGillivray, L. (1993). A psychogenetic perspective on children’s understanding about letter associations during alphabet book readings. Journal of Reading Behavior, 22, 277–295. doi: 10.1080/1086296.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Annemarie H. Hindman
    • 1
  • Lori E. Skibbe
    • 2
  • Tricia D. Foster
    • 2
  1. 1. Psychological, Organizational, and Leadership StudiesTemple UniversityPhiladelphiaUSA
  2. 2. Human Development and Family StudiesMichigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA

Personalised recommendations