The parts given in bold are the critical case markers manipulated in this study, which are always the third character (and syllable) of the target word. The markers before a slash represent incorrect previews, whereas the ones after the slash are the correct markers as they were presented after implementing the display change. Each sentence is presented in Korean, followed by literal word-by-word translation in English, and more natural translation in English.
Sentences used in condition 1
텔레비전을 보면서 동생이 사과을/를 껍질채 맛있게 먹었습니다.
Television / watch while / little brother / apple (object) / skin with / deliciously / ate.
→ My little brother ate an apple deliciously, even including its skin, (or enjoyed an apple) while watching TV.
인간은 동물과는 달리 가치와 의미을/를 추구하고 실현하는 존재입니다.
Humans / animals with / different / value and / meaning (object) / seek and / realize / being are.
→ Humans, unlike animals, seek and realize value and meaning.
휘파람새는 명쾌하고 아름다운 소리을/를 내는 명창 중의 명창새입니다.
A bush warbler / clear and / beautiful / sound (object) / master singer / among / master singer bird is.
→ A bush warbler is one of the master singing birds which produce clear and beautiful sounds.
지난 주에 전시된 그림의 제목은 자유을/를 찾아 가는 사람들이었습니다.
Last / week / displayed / painting’s / title / freedom (object) / seek / going / people was.
→ The title of the displayed painting last week was people seeking freedom (freedom seekers).
이 시간에는 신년기획 특집으로 경제을/를 회복시킨 분들에 관해 논의하겠습니다.
This / hour at / new year / project / special for / economy (object) / recover / people / about / discuss will.
→ As a new year special, at this hour we will discuss people who contributed to the recovery of our economy.
도도한 이미지를 자랑하던 사람이 눈물를/을 글썽이며 말을 이었습니다.
Arrogant / image / boast / person / tear (object) / swell up / speak / continue.
→ (He/She) who used to boast with an arrogant attitude continued to speak with tears swelling up.
추운 날씨에도 불구하고 바깥에서 사진를/을 세시간동안 열심히 찍었습니다.
Cold / weather / despite / outside / photos (object) / 3 hours during / diligently / took.
→ Despite cold weather, I (or he or she) took photos outside for 3 hours diligently.
통삼겹살과 김치보쌈으로 푸짐한 저녁를/을 해결하고 숙소로 돌아왔습니다.
Bacon and / kimchi wrap with / abundant / dinner (object) / solve and / lodge to / returned.
→ We returned to our hotel after substantial dinner with bacon and kimchi wrap.
자투리 시간 활용으로 그날 배운 내용를/을 철저히 복습해서 효과가 있었습니다.
Leftover / time / use / the day / learn / content (object) / perfectly / review / effect / there was.
→ It was effective to use small chunks of times and review the day’s content.
예술적 경지에 오른듯 매력적인 음악를/을 청중에게 흠뻑 들려주고 있습니다.
Artistic / level at / reach as if / attractive / music (object) / audience to / profusely / have them listen / –ing.
→ (The artist) is playing a charming piece of music to audience as if s/he was in epiphany.
아무리 힘들어도 조금만 참고 회사은/는 그만두면 안된다고 했습니다.
No matter how / difficult / a little only / endure and / company (topical) / quit if / don’t / said.
→S/he said that although it is very difficult, we should be patient and should not quit the company.
올해 가을 앨범에 발표한 이번 노래은/는 괜찮은 것 같은데 인기가 없습니다.
This year / autumn / album in / present / this / song (topical) / good / thing / seems but / popularity / lack.
→ The song that came out in the fall album sounds good to me, but it is not popular.
공부를 열심히 하지는 않았지만 학교은/는 매일 부지런히 다녔습니다.
Study / hard / do / not but / school (topical) / daily / diligently / went.
→ Although I did not study hard, I went to school diligently everyday.
진정성을 가지지 못한 얄팍한 변화은/는 오래 지탱하지 못하게 됩니다.
Authenticity / possess / not / shallow / change (topical) / long / last / cannot / become.
→ Unauthentic, shallow change does not last long.
생후 일년 미만 된 아기의 부모은/는 육아시간을 사용할 수 있습니다.
After birth / 1 year / less than / become / baby’s / parents (topical) / nursing time / use / can / (copula).
→ Parents who have a baby less than a year old can use maternity leave.
상식적으로 회사에서 일을 한 시간는/은 근무시간으로 인정되어야 합니다.
Common sense / workplace at / work / do / time (topical) / office hours / be acknowledge / needs to.
→ It is a common sense that the hours spent working at the office should be considered working (on-duty) hours.
서양인과 비교해서 동양인의 얼굴는/은 대체로 어려 보이는 경우가 많습니다.
Westerner to / compared / Asians’ / face (topical) / generally / young / seem / case / prevalent.
→ Asians tend to look young compared to those of Westerners.
시간이 많이 흘렀지만 일상생활 모습는/은 지금과 다르지 않았던 것 같습니다.
Time / much / pass but / daily / life / image (topical) / now with / different / not / thing / appear.
→ Much time has passed by, but it seems that daily life (in those days) does not seem to be different from that of today.
역사적으로 한국사회에서 교육는/은 아주 중요한 위치를 차지하고 있습니다.
Historically / Korean / society in / education (topical) / very / important / status / taken / has.
→ Education has been very important historically in Korean society.
살을 빼려면 식이요법과 함께 운동는/은 필수로 빼놓을 수 없는 것입니다.
Weight / lose if / diet and / with / exercise (topical) / essentially / miss / can / not / is.
→ If you want to lose weight, exercise is essential along with diet.
이 영화는 화해와 우리의 존재이/가 갖는 의미를 고찰한 작품입니다.
This / movie / reconciliation and / our / existence (subject) / have / meaning (object) / contemplate / work is.
→ This movie depicted reconciliation and the meaning of our existence.
조율을 하지 않아 피아노 상태이/가 아주 좋지 않은 것 같습니다.
Tuning / do / not / piano / condition / very / good / not / thing / seems.
→ Due to lack of tuning, the piano does not appear to be in good condition.
현대사회에서는 국가간의 관계이/가 복잡할 수 밖에 없습니다.
Modern society in / nation / between / relation (subject) / complex / thing / only / not.
→ In modern society, it is inevitable that the relations between countries are complex.
연락이 없다가 이른 새벽에 친구이/가 저한테 문자를 보냈습니다.
Contact / was not / early / morning at / friend (subject) / me to / text message / sent.
→ After no contact, my friend sent me a text message early this morning.
음식점에서 고기를 굽는 맛난 냄새이/가 문밖 길거리까지 솔솔 났습니다.
Restaurant at / meat / grill / delicious / smell (subject) / outside / street / fragrantly / occur.
→ The smell of meat grilled at the restaurant was apparent outside even in the street.
좋은 일은 많이 하면 할 수록 마음가/이 부자가 되어 아주 뿌듯합니다.
Good / work / many / do if / do / more / mind (subject) / become / very / proud.
→ I am proud that the more good things I do, the happier I become in my heart.
다음 주 어머님 생신을 맞아 온 가족가/이 음식점에서 모이기로 했습니다.
Next / week / mother-in-law / birthday / celebrate / whole / family (subject) / restaurant at / gather / decided.
→ The whole family decided to meet at a restaurant for my mother’s birthday next week.
머리가 깨끗하게 맑아지고 기분가/이 상쾌해지는 숲속향입니다.
Head / clearly / become clear / mood (subject) / fresh become / forest scent is.
→ The scent of woods makes us feel alert and refreshed.
얼굴이 빨개지며 수줍어하는 표정가/이 새삼 순진하게 느껴졌습니다.
Face / red become / bashful / expression (subject) / again / innocent / felt.
→ Her blush and shy expression on her face made me think again that she is innocent.
아동청소년 문학의 특징과 작품가/이 추구하는 세계를 논설했습니다.
Youth / literature’s / characteristics and / work (subject) / seeking / world / elaborate.
→ (He/she) elaborated on the characteristics of adolescent literature and the world it pursues.
Sentences used in condition 2
경제는 비약적으로 발전했고 정치를/는 이제 비로소 안정을 찾았습니다.
Economy / rapidly / developed / politics (object / topical) / now / finally / stability (object) / recuperated.
→ The economy made rapid development and the politics (government) finally became stable.
자연을 닮은 아이로 키우려고 엄마를/는 친자연주의 제품을 구입합니다.
Nature / resemble / child / raise / mother (object / topical) / nature friendly / product / purchase.
→ The mother purchases eco-friendly products so that her child comes to respect nature.
발표에 따르면 흡연율이 가장 높은 국가를/는 그리스로 나타났습니다.
Report / according to / smoking rate / most / high / country (object / topical) / Greece / (copula).
→ According to the report, the country with the highest smoking rate was Greece.
자신과 전혀 관계없는 모르는 전화가/는 받지 말고 바로 끊는 것이 좋습니다.
Oneself with / never / irrelevant / unknown / phone call (subject / topical) / receive / not and / immediately / hang / up / better.
→ It is advisable that you should not answer a phone call from an unknown person.
개성이 강한 시대인만큼 나만의 세계가/는 내가 만들어가야 합니다.
Individuality / strong / a time since / my won / world (subject / topical) / I / should make.
→ I should create a world of mine since it is a time when individuality is valued.
삶을 폭넓게 경험하고자 할 때 문학을/은 좋은 소재를 제공해줍니다.
Life / widely / experience want to / do / when / literature (object / topical) / good / topics / provide.
→ When you want to have rich life experiences, literature provides good topics.
그의 평안한 임종을 지켜보며 죽음을/은 두려운 것이 아님을 깨달았습니다.
His / peaceful / imminent death / watching / death (object / topical) / fearful / thing / not (object) / realized.
→ S/he realized that death is not something to fear when s/he watched his peaceful death.
수만명이 다녀간 해운대의 아침을/은 쓰레기로 가득찬 모습입니다.
Tens of 1,000s of people / come by / Haeoondae’s / morning (object / topical) / gargage with / filled / image is.
→ Haeoondae is filled with trash in the morning after tens of thousands of people had come by.
어렸을 때의 생각과는 달리 사랑이/은 끊임없는 노력과 끈기를 필요로 합니다.
Childhood / when / thinking with / different from / love (subject / topical) / ceaseless / effort and / patience / needed / is.
→ Different from one’s childhood thinking, love requires continuing effort and patience.
아무리 사랑한다 하더라도 자식이/은 결국 떠나보내야 하는 존재입니다.
No matter how much / love / despite / children (subject / topical) / eventually / leave / send / –ing / being is.
→ No matter how much you love your children, you eventually have to let them go.
우리가 사는 소중한 이 땅에 나무를/가 없으면 생태계가 어떻게 될지 궁금합니다.
We / living / precious / this / earth on / tree (object / subject) / not exist if / ecosystem / how / become / wonder.
→ I wonder about what would happen to ecosystem if there are no trees on this earth we live.
게시판을 설치하고서는 이런 문제를/가 생긴 것 같아 마음이 답답합니다.
Bulletin board (object) / install / this / problem (object / subject) / transpire / seems / heart / frustrated.
→ I am frustrated because it seems that this problem has occurred since the installation of a bulletin board.
작년 대통령 선거 결과는 역사를/가 바뀌는 세기의 일대 사건이었습니다.
Last year / presidential / election / result / history (object / subject) / changing / century’s / remarkable / event was.
→ The result of the presidential election last year was a remarkable, history changing event.
홍수처럼 밀려나온 뉴스때문에 하루는/가 다 가도록 허덕이며 쫓아다녔습니다.
Flood like / gush / come out / news because of / 1 day (topical / subject) / all / pass by / hectically / ran around.
→ I was swamped with work the whole day due to a lot of news.
아무리 기술이 발전해도 인간에게 언어는/가 없다면 살기 힘들것입니다.
No matter how / technology / develop despite / humans to / language (topical / subject) / not exist if / living / will be difficult.
→ No matter how advanced technology develops, it will be difficult to live without language.
당신을 최고로 사랑해주는 남편을/이 되도록 매일 매일 노력하겠습니다.
You / the most / loving / husband (object / subject) / become to / daily / daily / strive will.
→ I will strive everyday to be a husband who loves you dearly.
오늘따라 작은 아이가 자기 이름을/이 마음에 안든다고 투정부렸습니다.
Today particularly / younger / child / oneself / name (object / subject) / mind in / do not like / whined.
→ My second child was whining particularly today that s/he does not like his/her name.
풍부한 인력자원을 이용해 대학을/이 기후변화에 앞장서야 합니다.
Plenty / human resource / using / university (object / subject) / climate change / lead / should.
→ Universities should lead climate change effort using abundant human resources.
자유 뒤에는 반드시 그에 대한 책임은/이 따라오게 되어있음을 자각했습니다.
Freedom / behind / certainly / that / about / responsibility (topical / subject) / follow / bound to / realized.
→ S/he realized that freedom certainly requires responsibility.
몇 년 동안 노력한 결과로 노인은/이 살던 집을 드디어 찾아냈습니다.
Several years for / effort / result as / finally / old man (topical / subject) / having lived / house / found out.
→ Thanks to years of effort, we finally found the house where the old man used to live.
열악한 환경에서도 개인의 이익보다 사회가/를 위해 일하는 청년입니다.
Inadequate / environment despite / individuals’ / benefit rather than / society (subject / object) / for / working / young man is.
→ (He) is a young man who works for the benefit of society rather than personal desire even in a challenging environment.
동남아에 일주일 여행갔다가 담배가/를 여러 보루 사가지고 들어왔습니다.
East South Asia in / a week / trip / went / tobacco (subject / object) / several / packs about / buy / came back.
→ I bought several packs of cigarettes from a trip to South East Asia for a week.
험한 골짜기에 이런 웅장한 다리가/를 만들 수 있다는 게 놀랍습니다.
Steep / valley in / this / grant / bridge (subject / object) / build / thing / can / the fact / surprising.
→ It is surprising that people can build a grand bridge in this steep valley.
언제나 나를 용서해 주는 바다는/를 스케치하며 바다와 이야기하렵니다.
Always / me / forgive / -ing / sea (topical / object) / sketch while / sea with / talk will.
→ I am going to talk with the ocean while sketching the always forgiving ocean.
세살짜리 딸아이가 엄마 머리는/를 빗어주는 모습은 무척 감동이었습니다.
Three years old / daughter / mom’s / hair (topical / object) / brushing / image / very much / touching.
→ The scene in which a three-year-old daughter was brushing her mom's hair was touching.
인간에 대해 지식을 쌓으려면 인간이/을 직접 대면하는 가장 좋은 방법입니다.
Humans / about / knowledge / accumulate if / humans (subject / object) / directly / facing / the / best / method is.
→ If you want to be knowledgeable about human beings, the best method is to interact with human beings face to face.
외로운 밤에는 별이 많아지는 까닭이/을 이제야 비로소 알게 되었습니다.
Lonely / night at / star / become numerous / reason (subject / object) / just now / finally / know / came to.
→ I finally realized the reason why there are more stars at a lonely night.
끊임없이 우리의 마음과 생각이/을 훈련시켜 나가는 게 필요합니다.
Ceaseless / our / mind and / thoughts (subject / object) / training / is / needed.
→ It is necessary to continuously train our minds and thoughts.
본인의 의사와 관계없이 정든 고향은/을 떠난다는 것은 가슴 아픈 일입니다.
Oneself’s / intention with / irrelevant / attached / hometown (topical / object) / that / heart / hurting / occasion is.
→ Leaving one’s hometown against one’s will is a heartbreaking event.
사회의 여러 조직들이 힘없는 개인은/을 압박하는 것은 비겁합니다.
Society’s / several / organizations / helpless / individuals (topical / object) / supress / – ing (topical) / cowardly is.
→ It is cowardly for societal organizations to suppress helpless individuals.