Effects of working memory training on reading in children with special needs
- 3.7k Downloads
This study examines the relationship between working memory and reading achievement in 57 Swedish primary-school children with special needs. First, it was examined whether children’s working memory could be enhanced by a cognitive training program, and how the training outcomes would relate to their reading development. Next, it was explored how differential aspects of working memory are related to children’s reading outcomes. The working memory training yielded effects, and these effects appeared beneficial to children’s reading comprehension development. Working memory measures were found to be related with children’s word reading and reading comprehension. The results show that working memory can be seen as a crucial factor in the reading development of literacy among children with special needs, and that interventions to improve working memory may help children becoming more proficient in reading comprehension.
KeywordsWorking memory Working memory training Word decoding Reading comprehension Small groups Special education Special needs
This research was supported by The Swedish Research Council.
- Baddeley, A. D. (2007). Working memory, thought and action. Oxford: University Press.Google Scholar
- Cain, K., Oakhill, J., & Bryant, P. (2004). Children’s reading comprehension ability: Concurrent prediction by working memory, verbal ability, and component skills. The American Psychological Association, 96(1), 31–42.Google Scholar
- D’Amico, A. (2006). Training of working memory for preventing mathematical difficulties. Etá Evolutiva, 83, 90–99.Google Scholar
- de Jong, P. (2006). Understanding normal and impaired reading development: A working memory perspective. In S. Pickering (Ed.), Working memory and education (pp. 33–60). London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
- Holmes, J., Gathercole, S. E., & Dunning, D. L. (2009). Adaptive training leads to sustained enhancement of poor working memory in children. Developmental Science, 12(4), F9–F15.Google Scholar
- Klingberg, T., Fernell, E., Olesen, P. J., Johnson, M., Gustafsson, P., Dahlström, K., et al. (2005). Computerized training of working memory in children with ADHD - A randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 44(2), 177–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lundberg, I. (1994). Reading difficulties can be predicted and prevented: A Scandinavian perspective on phonological awareness and reading. In C. Hulme & M. J. Snowling (Eds.), Reading development and dyslexia (pp. 180–199). London: Whurr.Google Scholar
- McNab, F., Varrone, A., Farde, L., Jucaite, A., Bystritsky, P., Forssberg, H., et al. (2009). Changes in cortical dopamine D1 receptor binding associated with cognitive training. Science, 323(6), 799–801.Google Scholar
- RoboMemo©, Cogmed Medical Systems AB, Stockholm, Sweden. www.cogmed.com.
- Torgesen, J. K., Alexander, A. W., Wagner, R. K., Rashotte, C. A., Voeller, K. K., & Conway, T. (2001). Intensive remedial instruction for children with severe reading disabilities: Immediate and long-term outcomes from two instructional approaches. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 32(1), 33–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Vellutino, F. R., & Fletcher, J. M. (2007). Developmental dyslexia. In M. Snowling & C. Hulme (Eds.), The science of reading (pp. 362–378). Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.Google Scholar