Reading and Writing

, Volume 24, Issue 1, pp 27–53 | Cite as

Letter-name letter-sound and phonological awareness: evidence from Greek-speaking kindergarten children

  • George Manolitsis
  • Eufimia Tafa


The purpose of this study was to examine longitudinally the development of letter-sound and letter-name knowledge and their relation to each other and to various aspects of phonological awareness in a sample of Greek kindergarten children who did not know how to read. One hundred twenty children aged 58–69 months were assessed on letter-sound and letter-name knowledge, as well as on phonological awareness skills at the beginning, the middle and the end of kindergarten. The findings indicated that: (a) kindergarten children knew more letter-sounds than letter-names in almost every case across the assessment points; (b) letter-sound knowledge predicted letter-name knowledge slightly better than vice versa; (c) phonological awareness was associated directly with later letter-sound and letter-name knowledge, and (d) the bidirectional hypothesis between phonological awareness and letters knowledge was not confirmed.


Letter-sound knowledge Letter-name knowledge Phonological awareness Emergent literacy Kindergarten 


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© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Preschool EducationUniversity of CreteRethymno, CreteGreece

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