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Reading and Writing

, Volume 23, Issue 8, pp 889–912 | Cite as

Reading interventions for struggling readers in the upper elementary grades: a synthesis of 20 years of research

  • Jeanne Wanzek
  • Jade Wexler
  • Sharon Vaughn
  • Stephen Ciullo
Article

Abstract

A synthesis of the extant research on reading interventions for students with reading difficulties and disabilities in fourth and fifth grade (ages 9–11) is presented. Thirteen studies with treatment/comparison study designs and eleven single group or single subject studies were located and synthesized. Findings from the 24 studies revealed high effects for comprehension interventions on researcher-developed comprehension measures. Word recognition interventions yielded small to moderate effects on a range of reading outcomes. Few studies were located implementing vocabulary and multi-component interventions.

Keywords

Reading intervention Reading difficulties Learning disabilities 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jeanne Wanzek
    • 1
  • Jade Wexler
    • 2
  • Sharon Vaughn
    • 2
  • Stephen Ciullo
    • 2
  1. 1.Florida State University, School of Teacher Education and Florida Center for Reading Research C234B PsychologyTallahasseeUSA
  2. 2.The University of Texas at AustinAustinUSA

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