Reading and Writing

, Volume 23, Issue 5, pp 539–568 | Cite as

Component processes of early reading, spelling, and narrative writing skills in Turkish: a longitudinal study

  • Selma Babayiğit
  • Rhona Stainthorp


The study examined: (a) the role of phonological, grammatical, and rapid automatized naming (RAN) skills in reading and spelling development; and (b) the component processes of early narrative writing skills. Fifty-seven Turkish-speaking children were followed from Grade 1 to Grade 2. RAN was the most powerful longitudinal predictor of reading speed and its effect was evident even when previous reading skills were taken into account. Broadly, the phonological and grammatical skills made reliable contributions to spelling performance but their effects were completely mediated by previous spelling skills. Different aspects of the narrative writing skills were related to different processing skills. While handwriting speed predicted writing fluency, spelling accuracy predicted spelling error rate. Vocabulary and working memory were the only reliable longitudinal predictors of the quality of composition content. The overall model, however, failed to explain any reliable variance in the structural quality of the compositions.


Reading Narrative writing Grammatical awareness Phonological awareness RAN Spelling 



We would like to thank the participating teachers, parents, and children from the 23 Nisan Primary School and Karaoğlanoğlu Primary School for their willing participation and cooperation. Many thanks also go to Mrs. Arzu Cankoy and Mrs. Ülfet Canseç for their help with the scoring of the written compositions of the children. Finally, we would like to thank the two anonymous reviewers and Prof. C. Hulme for their insightful suggestions on an earlier draft of the paper. Preparation of this paper was supported by a Postdoctoral Fellowship Award given by the Economic and Social Research Council (UK).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Psychology, School of Life SciencesUniversity of the West of England (Bristol)BristolUK
  2. 2.University of YorkYorkUK
  3. 3.University of Reading, Institute of EducationEarley, ReadingUK

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