Reading and Writing

, Volume 23, Issue 1, pp 31–51

Does whole-word multimedia software support literacy acquisition?

  • Arjette M. Karemaker
  • Nicola J. Pitchford
  • Claire O’Malley
Article

Abstract

This study examined the extent to which multimedia features of typical literacy learning software provide added benefits for developing literacy skills compared with typical whole-class teaching methods. The effectiveness of the multimedia software Oxford Reading Tree (ORT) for Clicker in supporting early literacy acquisition was investigated through a classroom-based intervention study by comparing ORT for Clicker to traditional ORT Big Books. Sixty-one typically developing readers, aged 5–6 years, from four primary classes were each given the two interventions. Each intervention was delivered over five one-hour sessions over the course of 1 week. Performance on tasks of written word recognition, written word naming, and phonological awareness, was measured before and after each intervention. Significantly greater gains in word recognition, word naming, rhyme awareness, segmentation skill, and grapheme awareness were found after the ORT for Clicker compared to the traditional ORT Big Book intervention. This study shows that whole-word multimedia software can be more effective than traditional printed texts from the same reading scheme at supporting the development of early literacy skills.

Keywords

Multimedia software ICT Literacy acquisition Whole-word reading Intervention 

References

  1. Adams, M. J. (1990). Beginning to read: Thinking & learning about print. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  2. Andrews, S. (2006). From inkmarks to ideas: Current issues in lexical processing. Hove, UK: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  3. Bryant, P. E., Maclean, M., & Bradley, L. (1990). Rhyme, language and children’s reading. Applied Psycholinguistics, 11, 237–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Castles, A., & Coltheart, M. (2004). Is there a causal link from phonological awareness to success in learning to read? Cognition, 91, 77–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Castles, A., & Nation, K. (2006). How does orthographic learning happen? In S. Andrews (Ed.), From inkmarks to ideas: Current issues in lexical processing (pp. 151–179). Hove, UK: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  6. Chera, P., & Wood, C. (2003). Animated multimedia ‘talking books’ can promote phonological awareness in children beginning to read. Learning and Instruction, 13, 33–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioural sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  8. Cox, M. J., & Abbott, C. (2004). ICT and attainment: A review of the research literature. Coventry and London: British Educational Communications and Technology Agency/Department for Education and Skills.Google Scholar
  9. Crick Software. (2006). Oxford reading tree for clicker. Northampton, UK: Crick Software Ltd.Google Scholar
  10. DeJean, J., Miller, L., & Olson, J. (1999). CD-ROM talking books: What do they promise? Education and Information Technologies, 2, 121–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. De Jong, M. T., & Bus, A. G. (2002). Quality of book reading matters for emergent readers: An experiment with the same book in a regular or electronic format. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94, 145–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. De Jong, M. T., & Bus, A. G. (2003). How well suited are electronic books to supporting literacy? Journal of Early Childhood Literacy, 3, 147–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dynarski, M., Agodini, R., Heaviside, S., Novak, T., Carey, N., Campuzano, L., Means, B., Murphy, R., Penuel, W., Javitz, H., Emery, D., & Sussex, W. (2007). Effectiveness of reading and mathematics software products: Findings from the first student cohort. Retrieved August 13, 2008, from http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/pubs/20074005/.
  14. Ehri, L. C. (1989). The development of spelling knowledge and its role in reading acquisition and reading disability. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 22, 356–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fitzer, K. M., Freidhoff, J. R., Fritzen, A., Heintz, A., Koehler, J., Mishra, P., et al. (2007). Guest editorial: More questions than answers: Responding to the reading and mathematics software effectiveness study. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 7(2), 1–6.Google Scholar
  16. Fowler, A. E. (1991). How early phonological development might set the stage for phoneme awareness. In S. A. Brady & D. P. Shankweiler (Eds.), Phonological processes in literacy: A tribute to Isabelle Y. Liberman (pp. 97–117). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  17. Hartley, J. (2007). Teaching, learning, and new technology: A review for teachers. British Journal of Educational Technology, 36, 42–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hunt, R., & Brychta, A. (2003a). Strawberry jam. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Hunt, R., & Brychta, A. (2003b). Kipper the clown. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Hunt, R., & Page, T. (2003). Teacher’s handbook; stages 1–9. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Korat, O., & Shamir, A. (2004). Do Hebrew electronic books differ from Dutch electronic books? A replication of a Dutch content analysis. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 20, 257–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Korat, O., & Shamir, A. (2007). Electronic books versus adult readers: Effects on children’s emergent literacy as a function of social class. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 23, 248–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Labbo, L. D., & Kuhn, M. R. (2000). Weaving chains of affect and cognition: A young child’s understanding of CD-ROM talking books. Journal of Literacy Research, 32, 187–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lewin, C. (2000). Exploring the effects of talking book software in UK primary classrooms. Journal of Research in Reading, 23, 149–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Littleton, K., Wood, C., & Chera, P. (2006). Interactions with talking books: Phonological awareness affects boys’ use of talking books. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 22, 382–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Longman. (1999). Bangers and mash. London, UK: Longman Group Limited. Google Scholar
  27. Mann, V. A., & Wimmer, H. (2002). Phoneme awareness and pathways to literacy: A comparison of German and American children. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 15, 653–682.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Matthew, K. I. (1996). The impact of CD-ROM Story books on children’s reading comprehension and reading attitude. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 5, 379–394.Google Scholar
  29. McKenna, M. C. (1998). Electronic texts and the transformation of beginning reading. In D. Reinking, M. C. McKenna, L. D. Labbo, & R. D. Kieffer (Eds.), Handbook of literacy and technology: Transformation in a post-typographic world (pp. 45–59). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  30. McKenna, M. C., Reinking, D., & Bradley, B. A. (2003). The effects of electronic trade books on the decoding growth of beginning readers. In R. M. Joshi, C. K. Leong, & B. L. J. Kaczmarek (Eds.), Literacy acquisition: The role of phonology, morphology, and orthography (pp. 193–202). Amsterdam: IOS Press.Google Scholar
  31. Miller, L., Blackstock, J., & Miller, R. (1994). An exploratory study into the use of CD-ROM storybooks. Computers & Education, 22, 187–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Morais, J. (1991). Phonological awareness: A bridge between language and literacy. In D. Sawyer & B. Fox (Eds.), Phonological awareness in reading: The evolution of current perspectives (pp. 31–71). New York: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  33. Office for Standards in Education (Ofsted). (2006). Inspection Report. Retrieved June 6, 2006, from http://www.ofsted.gov.uk
  34. Office for Standards in Education (Ofsted). (2007a). Inspection Report. Retrieved February 20, 2007, from http://www.ofsted.gov.uk
  35. Office for Standards in Education (Ofsted). (2007b). Inspection Report. Retrieved October 10, 2007, from http://www.ofsted.gov.uk
  36. Rayner, K., & Pollatsek, A. (1989). The psychology of reading. New York: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  37. Robertson, C., & Salter, W. (1997). The phonological awareness test. East Moline, IL: LinguiSystems.Google Scholar
  38. Shankweiler, D., & Fowler, A. E. (2004). Questions people ask about the role of phonological processes in learning to read. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 17, 483–515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Share, D. L. (1995). Phonological recoding and self-teaching: Sine qua non of reading acquisition. Cognition, 55, 151–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Snowling, M., & Hulme, C. (2005). The science of reading: A handbook. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  41. Stanovich, K. E. (1999). Who is rational? Studies of individual differences in reasoning. Mahway, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  42. Teale, W. (1981). Parents reading to their children: What we know and what we need to know. Language Arts, 58, 902–912.Google Scholar
  43. Torgerson, C. J., & Zhu, D. (2004). A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effectiveness of ICT on literacy learning in English. In R. Andrews (Ed.), The impact of ICT on literacy education (pp. 5–16). London: RoutledgeFalmer.Google Scholar
  44. Underwood, J. D. M. (2000). Computer support for reading development. Journal of Research in Reading, 23, 136–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Underwood, G., & Underwood, J. D. M. (1998). Children’s interactions and learning outcomes with interactive talking books. Computers & Education, 30, 95–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Walley, A. C., Metsala, J. L., & Garlock, V. M. (2003). Spoken vocabulary growth: Its role in the development of phoneme awareness and early reading ability. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 16, 5–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arjette M. Karemaker
    • 1
  • Nicola J. Pitchford
    • 1
  • Claire O’Malley
    • 1
  1. 1.School of PsychologyUniversity of NottinghamNottinghamUK

Personalised recommendations