Reading and Writing

, Volume 21, Issue 6, pp 661–674 | Cite as

Cognitive profiling in Chinese developmental dyslexia with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders

  • Won Shing Raymond Chan
  • Se Fong Hung
  • Suet Nga Liu
  • Cheuk Kiu Kathy Lee
Article

Abstract

The cognitive profiles of children with Developmental Reading Disorder (RD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorders (ADHD) have been extensively studied in alphabetic language communities. Deficits in phonological processing and rapid naming have been implicated as core features of RD although whether the latter is a deficit specific to RD remains controversial. Similar research aiming to explore the cognitive profiles of children with both RD and ADHD in non-alphabetic language communities is limited. The specificity of rapid naming deficit to RD among Chinese has yet to be studied. In the first study, 43 Chinese children with confirmed diagnoses of RD + ADHD were assessed on their cognitive abilities in relating to reading. In the second study, the specificity deficit hypothesis of rapid naming to RD but not ADHD was examined. A digit naming test was administered to the RD + ADHD group (43 subjects) and an ADHD only group (49 subjects). In regard to cognitive profiling, rapid naming and orthographic knowledge were found to be the most common deficits among the Chinese RD + ADHD group. This co-morbid group was also found to have a significant deficit performance on the rapid naming task than the ADHD only group. The present findings support the double dissociation hypothesis in cognitive deficit between RD and ADHD. The results of both studies are discussed with reference to the findings of the Western counterparts.

Keywords

RD ADHD Cognitive profiling Rapid naming Double dissociation hypothesis 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Thanks are due to the participants and their parents for the two studies.

References

  1. Ackerman, P. T., & Dykman, R. A. (1993). Phonological processes, confrontational naming, and immediate memory in dyslexia. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 26, 597–609.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adams, M. J. (1990). Learning to read. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  3. Achenbach, T. M. (1991a). Manual for the child behavior checklist/4–18 and 1991 profile. Burlington VT: University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry.Google Scholar
  4. Achenbach, T. M. (1991b). Manual for the teacher report form/4–18 and 1991 profile. Burlington VT: University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry.Google Scholar
  5. American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th edn.). Washington, D. C.: Author.Google Scholar
  6. Badian N. A. (1997). Dyslexia and the double deficit hypothesis. Annals of Dyslexia, 47, 69–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bowers, P. G., & Wolf, M. (1993). Theoretical links among naming speed, precise timing mechanisms and orthographic skill in dyslexia. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 5, 69–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brock, S. E., & Knapp, P. K. (1996). Reading comprehension abilities of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Attention Disorders, 1, 173–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hirose, T., & Hatta, T. (1988). Reading disabilities in modern Japanese children. Journal of Research in Reading, 11, 152–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ho, C. S., & Bryant, P. (1997). Phonological skills are important in learning to read Chinese. Developmental Psychology, 33, 946–951.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ho, C. S., Chan, D. W. O., Leung, P. W. L., Lee, S. H., & Tsang, S. M. (2005). Reading-related cognitive deficits in developmental dyslexia, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and developmental coordination disorder among Chinese children. Reading Research Quarterly, 40, 318–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ho, C. S., Chan, D. W. O., Tsang, S. M., & Lee, S. H. (2002). The cognitive profile and multiple-deficit hypothesis in Chinese developmental dyslexia. Developmental Psychology, 38, 543–553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ho, C. S., Chan, D. W. O., Tsang, S. M., Lee, S. H., & Luan V. H. (2004). Cognitive profiling and preliminary subtyping in Chinese developmental dyslexia. Cognition, 91, 43–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ho, C. S., Chan, D. W. O., & Education Department, HKSAR Government (2000). The Hong Kong Test of Specific Learning Difficulties in Reading and Writing (HKT-SpLD). Hong Kong Specific Learning Difficulties Research Team, Chinese University of Hong Kong & Education Department, HKSAR Government.Google Scholar
  15. Ho, C. S., Law, T. P., & Ng, P. M. (2000). The phonological deficit hypothesis in Chinese developmental dyslexia. Reading and Writing, 13, 57–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Psychological Corporation. (1981). Hong Kong Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (HK-WISC) manual. New York: Author.Google Scholar
  17. Hu, C. F., & Catts, H. W. (1998). The role of phonological processing in early reading ability: What we can learn from Chinese. Scientific Studies of Reading, 2, 55–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Huang H. S., & Zhang H. R. (1997). An analysis of phonemic awareness, word awareness and tone awareness among dyslexia children. Bulletin of Special Education and Rehabilitation, 5, 125–138.Google Scholar
  19. Leung, P. W. L., Kwong, S. L., Tang, C. P., Ho, T. P., Hung, S. F., Lee, C. C., Hong, S. L., Chiu, C. M., & Liu, W. S. (2006). Test–retest reliability and criterion validity of the Chinese version of CBCL, TRF, and YSR. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 970–973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Manis, F. R, Doi, L. M, & Bhadha, B. (2000). Naming speed, phonological awareness, and orthographic knowledge in second graders. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 33(4), 325–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. McBride-Chang, C., & Ho, C. S. (2000). Developmental issues in Chinese children’s character acquisition. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92, 50–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Miles, E. (2000). Dyslexia may show a different face in different languages. Dyslexia, 6, 193–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Pennington, B. F., Groisser, D., & Welsh, M. C. (1993). Contrasting cognitive deficits in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder versus reading disability. Developmental Psychology, 29, 511–552.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Purvis, K. L., & Tannock, R. (2000). Phonological processing, not inhibitory control, differentiates ADHD and reading disability. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39, 485–494.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Raberger, T., & Wimmer, H. (2003). On the automaticity/cerebellar deficit hypothesis of dyslexia: Balancing and continuous rapid naming in dyslexic and ADHD children. Neuropsychologia, 41(11), 1493–1497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Riccio, C. A., & Jemison, S. J. (1998). ADHD and emergent literacy: Influence of language factors. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 14(1), 43–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Schatschneider, C., Carlson, C. D., Francis, D. J., Foorman, B. R., & Fletcher, J. M. (2002). Relationship of rapid automatized naming and phonological awareness in early reading development: Implications for the double-deficit hypothesis. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 35, 245–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Shaywitz, B. A., Fletcher, J. M., & Shaywitz, S. E. (1994). Interrelationships between reading disability and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. In A. J. Capute, P. J. Accardo, & B. K. Shapiro (Eds.), Learning disabilities spectrum: ADD, ADHD, and LD (pp. 107–120). Baltimore, MD: York Press.Google Scholar
  29. Shaywitz, S. E., & Shaywitz, B. A. (1988). Attention deficit disorder: Current perspectives. In J. F. Kavanaugh, & T. J. Truss (Eds.), Learning disabilities: Proceedings of the national conference (pp. 369–523). Parkton, MD: York Press.Google Scholar
  30. Semrud-Clikeman, M., Guy, K., Griffin, J. D., & Hynd, G. W. (2000). Rapid naming deficits in children and adolescents with reading disabilities and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Brain and Language, 74, 70–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Semrud-Clikeman, M., Biederman, J., Sprich-Buckminster, S., Krifcher-Lehman, B., Faraone, S. V., & Norman, D. (1992). The incidence of ADHD and concurrent learning disabilities. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 31, 439–448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Spencer, K. (2001). Differential effects of orthographic transparency on dyslexia: Word reading difficulty for common English words. Dyslexia, 7, 217–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Tannock, R., & Brown, T. E. (2000). Attention-deficit disorders with learning disorders in children, & adolescents. In T. E. Brown (Ed.), Attention-deficit disorders and comorbidities in children, adolescents, & adults (pp. 231–296). Washington, D. C.: American Psychiatric Press, Inc.Google Scholar
  34. Tannock, R., Martinussen, R., & Frijters., J. (2000). Naming speed performance and stimulant effects indicate effortful, semantic processing deficits in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 28, 237–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Wagner, R. K., Torgesen, J. K., & Rashotte, C. A. (1994). Development of reading-related phonological abilities: New evidence of bidirectional causality from a latent variable longitudinal study. Developmental Psychology, 30, 73–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Willcutt, E. G., Pennington, B. F., Boada, R., Ogline, J. S., Tunick, R. A., Chhabildas, N. A., & Olson, R. K. (2001). A comparison of the cognitive deficits in reading disability and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 110, 157–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Wolf, M., & Bowers, P. G. (1999). The double-deficit hypothesis for developmental dyslexia. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91, 415–438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Wu, K. K., Anderson, V., & Castiello, U. (2002). Neuropsychological evaluation of deficits in executive functioning for ADHD children. Developmental Neuropsychology, 22, 501–531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Wydell, T. N., & Butterworth, B. (1999). A case study of an English-Japanese bilingual with monolingual dyslexia. Cognition, 70, 273–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Won Shing Raymond Chan
    • 1
  • Se Fong Hung
    • 1
  • Suet Nga Liu
    • 2
  • Cheuk Kiu Kathy Lee
    • 3
  1. 1.Kwai Chung HospitalHospital AuthorityHong KongHong Kong
  2. 2.Castle Peak HospitalHospital AuthorityHong KongHong Kong
  3. 3.The Department of HealthHong KongHong Kong

Personalised recommendations