Reading and Writing

, 21:609 | Cite as

Reading and writing: what is the relationship with anxiety and depression?



Learning can be considered a function of synthesis in which both cognitive functioning and the domain of affectivity convey. The aim of the present study was to investigate how specific literacy skills, i.e., reading and writing, relate to two main dimensions of negative affectivity, i.e., anxiety and depression. Study 1 was conducted on third grade children (72), while Study 2 focused on first grade children (43). Two groups of participants selected because they had been deemed ‘at risk’ for the development of anxiety or depression and a control group were compared in reading and writing tasks, which included both word and non-word lists. The assessment included also the evaluation of Verbal, Nonverbal and Composite IQs. Results indicated that children ‘at risk’ for depression made more spelling errors in dictation of words in comparison to the control group. No differences emerged in reading tasks or with reference to the group of children ‘at risk’ for anxiety.


Reading Writing Anxiety Depression Learning 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paola Bonifacci
    • 1
  • Lucia Candria
    • 1
  • Silvana Contento
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of BolognaBolognaItaly

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