Reading and Writing

, Volume 19, Issue 9, pp 991–1016 | Cite as

Name writing but not environmental print recognition is related to letter-sound knowledge and phonological awareness in pre-readers

  • Rebecca Blair
  • Robert SavageEmail author


This paper reports a study exploring the associations between measures of two levels of phonological representation: recognition (epi-linguistic) and production (meta-linguistic) tasks, and very early reading and writing skills. Thirty-eight pre-reading Ottawa-area children, aged 4–5 years, named environmental print (EP), wrote their own name, identified correct names and EP words amongst foils and detected foil letters within EP and names. Results showed that phonological awareness and letter-sound knowledge were not related to EP recognition. Name writing accuracy and name identification were related to both levels of phonological awareness. Furthermore, name writing showed a unique association with phonological awareness even after letter-sound knowledge was controlled statistically. Pre-readers may first use meta-linguistic phonological awareness in their name writing and identification prior to learning to read.


Environmental print Name writing Phonological awareness Pre-readers Spelling 


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This paper was supported by a grant from the Butters Foundation to the first author and a Social Sciences and Health Research Council of Canada grant number 410-2004-1371 to the second author. We would like to thank Beth Moskovic for her help in developing the word set for the phonological awareness tasks in this study and also like to thank the staff and children at all of the nurseries for their hard work and enthusiasm for this project. We would like to thank Robert Savage McGill University Department of Educational Psychology Graduate studies Fellowship.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Education Department of Educational and Counselling PsychologyMcGill UniversityMontreal QuebecCanada

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