Reading and Writing

, Volume 19, Issue 9, pp 933–958

Should the Simple View of Reading Include a Fluency Component?

  • Suzanne M. Adlof
  • Hugh W. Catts
  • Todd D. Little


The Simple View of Reading states that reading comprehension is the product of word recognition and listening comprehension. Whereas much research has focused on word recognition accuracy, recent attention has been directed toward word recognition fluency. The current study investigated whether a separate fluency component should be added to the Simple View of Reading. A battery of reading and language measures was administered to 604 children in second, fourth, and eighth grades. Approximately half these children had language and/or nonverbal cognitive impairments in kindergarten, but weighting procedures were used to reduce the potential bias this sampling characteristic may have entailed. Structural equation modeling was used to determine whether fluency accounted for unique variance in reading comprehension after controlling for word recognition accuracy and listening comprehension. Individual profile analyses were conducted to determine the number of individual participants who␣had poor fluency in the spite of good word recognition accuracy and listening comprehension. Results showed that fluency did not account for unique variance in reading␣comprehension and that few individuals had problems in fluency separate from word recognition accuracy or listening comprehension. Thus, it does not appear that a separate fluency component should be added to the Simple View of Reading.


Fluency Listening comprehension Reading comprehension Simple View of Reading Word recognition 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Suzanne M. Adlof
    • 1
    • 2
  • Hugh W. Catts
    • 1
  • Todd D. Little
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Speech-Language-Hearing: Sciences and DisordersUniversity of KansasLawrenceUSA
  2. 2.Life Span InstituteUniversity of KansasLawrenceUSA

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