Reading and Writing

, Volume 19, Issue 8, pp 845–872 | Cite as

The Relationship of Spelling Recognition, RAN, and Phonological Awareness to Reading Skills in Older Poor Readers and Younger Reading-Matched Controls

  • Tami Katzir
  • YoungSuk Kim
  • Maryanne Wolf
  • Becky Kennedy
  • Maureen Lovett
  • Robin Morris


The role of spelling recognition was examined in word reading skills and reading comprehension for dyslexic and nondyslexic children. Dyslexic and nondyslexic children were matched on their raw word reading proficiency. Relationships between spelling recognition and the following were examined for both groups of children: verbal ability, working memory, phonological measures, rapid naming, word reading, and reading comprehension. Children’s performance in spelling recognition was significantly associated with their skills in word reading and reading comprehension regardless of their reading disability status. Furthermore, spelling recognition contributed significant variance to reading comprehension for both dyslexic and nondyslexic children after the effects of phonological awareness, rapid naming, and word reading proficiency had been accounted for. The results support the role of spelling recognition in reading development for both groups of children and they are discussed using a componential reading fluency framework.


Spelling recognition Reading comprehension Dyslexia RAN Word reading Fluency 


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The authors wish to thank Nonie Lesaux for her helpful comments and Vanara Taing for technical assistance with this manuscript. Part of this study was funded by the AVI grant awarded to the first author.


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Copyright information

© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tami Katzir
    • 1
  • YoungSuk Kim
    • 1
  • Maryanne Wolf
    • 2
  • Becky Kennedy
    • 3
  • Maureen Lovett
    • 4
  • Robin Morris
    • 5
  1. 1.Harvard Graduate School of EducationCambridgeUSA
  2. 2.Center for Reading and Language ResearchTufts UniversityBostonUSA
  3. 3.Lasell CollegeNewtonUSA
  4. 4.Hospital for Sick ChildrenTorontoCanada
  5. 5.Georgia State UniversityAtlantaUSA

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