Advertisement

Reading and Writing

, Volume 19, Issue 6, pp 543–561 | Cite as

Exploring the reading–writing connection in Chinese children with dyslexia in Hong Kong

  • DAVID W. CHANEmail author
  • CONNIE S.-H. HO
  • SUK-MAN TSANG
  • SUK-HAN LEE
  • KEVIN K. H. CHUNG
Article

Abstract

Comparing the analyses based on the data of 1,235 Chinese children referred for government services and subsequently diagnosed as children with dyslexia in Hong Kong and those of 690 Chinese children in the sample for the normative study of the Hong Kong Test of Specific Learning Difficulties in Reading and Writing, we explored the reading–writing connection through a series of regression and correlation analyses. Specifically, orthographic knowledge, naming speed, and phonological memory were found to be salient predictors predicting both reading and writing, and when they were controlled and partialed out, the correlations between reading and writing were sizably attenuated, suggesting that these cognitive abilities or skills could act as third-variables contributing to the relationship between reading and writing. Issues related to causal inference, directionality of causality, and implications of the findings for intervention efforts and future research are discussed.

Keywords

Dyslexia Hong Kong Reading–writing connection 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Badian N. A., (1997). Dyslexia and the double deficit hypothesis Annals of Dyslexia 47:69–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bowers P. G., Wolf M., (1993). Theoretical links among naming speed, precise timing mechanisms and orthographic skill in dyslexia Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal 5:69–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chan D. W., Ho C. S.-H., Tsang S., Lee S., Chung K. K. H., (2003). Reading-related behavioral characteristics of Chinese children with dyslexia: The use of the teachers’ behavior checklist in Hong Kong Annals of Dyslexia 53:300–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Corcos E., Willows D., (1993). The role of visual processing in good and poor readers’ utilization of orthographic information in letter strings In: S. F. Wright, R. Groner (Eds) Facets of dyslexia and its remediation Amsterdam, The Netherlands Elsevier Science Publishers B. V (pp. 95–106)Google Scholar
  5. Gathercole S. E., Baddeley A. D., (1993). Working memory and language Hove, UK: ErlbaumGoogle Scholar
  6. Goswami U., (2002). Phonology, reading development, and dyslexia: A cross-linguistic perspective Annals of Dyslexia 52:141–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ho C. S.-H., Bryant P., (1997a). Learning to read Chinese beyond the logographic phase Reading Research Quarterly 32:276–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ho C. S.-H., Bryant P., (1997b). Phonological skills are important in learning to read Chinese Developmental Psychology 33:946–951CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ho C. S.-H., Lai D. N.-C., (1999). Naming-speed deficits and phonological memory deficits in Chinese developmental dyslexia Learning and Individual Differences 11:173–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ho C. S.-H., Chan D. W., Lee S., Tsang S., Chung K. K. H., (2003). The Chinese Word Reading Training Package Hong Kong Hong Kong Specific Learning Difficulties Research Team [In Chinese]Google Scholar
  11. Ho C. S.-H., Chan D. W., Lee S., Tsang S., Luan V. H., (2004). Cognitive profiling and preliminary subtyping in Chinese developmental dyslexia Cognition 91:43–75CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Ho C. S.-H., Chan D. W., Tsang S., Lee S., (2000). The Hong Kong test of specific learning difficulties in reading and writing (HKT-SpLD) manual Hong Kong Hong Kong Specific Learning Difficulties Research Team [In Chinese]Google Scholar
  13. Ho C. S.-H., Chan D. W., Tsang S., Lee S., (2002). The cognitive profile and multiple-deficit hypothesis in Chinese developmental dyslexia Developmental Psychology 38:543–553CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Ho C. S.-H., Law T. P., Ng P. M., (2000). The phonological deficit hypothesis in Chinese developmental dyslexia Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal 13:57–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Holm A., Dodd B., (1996). The effect of first written language on the acquisition of English literacy Cognition 59:119–147CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Hu C.-F., Catts H. W., (1998). The role of phonological processing in early reading ability: What we can learn from Chinese Scientific Studies of Reading 2:55–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Huang H., Hanley J. R., (1995). Phonological awareness and visual skills in learning to read Chinese and English Cognition 54:73–98CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Lam C. C. C., (1999). Developmental dyslexia and other specific learning disabilities. The state of practice: International and Hong Kong perspective Hong Kong Journal of Paediatrics 4:145–150Google Scholar
  19. Leong C. K., (1997). Paradigmatic analysis and Chinese word reading: Research findings and classroom practice In: C. K. Leong, R. M. Joshi (Eds) Cross-language studies of learning to read and spell: Phonological and orthographic processing Dordrecht, Holland: Kluwer Academic Publishers (pp. 379–418)Google Scholar
  20. Leong C. K., Cheng P. W., Lam C. C. C., (2000). Exploring reading–spelling connection as locus of dyslexia in Chinese Annals of Dyslexia 50:239–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. McBride-Chang C., Kail R. V., (2002). Cross-cultural similarities in the predictors of reading acquisition Child Development 73:1392–1407CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. McBride-Chang C., Manis F., (1996). Structural invariance in the associations of naming speed, phonological awareness, and verbal reasoning in good and poor readers: A test of the double deficit hypothesis Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal 8:323–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Miles T. R., Miles E., (1999). Dyslexia: A hundred years on (2nd ed.) Buckingham, UK Open University PressGoogle Scholar
  24. Siok W. T., Fletcher P., (2001). The role of phonological awareness and visual-orthographic skills in Chinese reading acquisition Developmental Psychology 37:886–899CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Snowling M. J., (2000). Dyslexia (2nd ed.) Oxford, UK Blackwell PublishersGoogle Scholar
  26. South China Morning Post (2005, June 10). Learning to write is key to readingGoogle Scholar
  27. Spafford C. A., Grosser G. S., (2005). Dyslexia and reading difficulties: Research and resource guide fro working with all struggling readers (2nd ed.) Boston Allyn & BaconGoogle Scholar
  28. Tan L. H., Spinks J. A., Eden G. F., Perfetti C. A., Siok W. T., (2005). Reading depends on writing, in Chinese Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 102:8781–8785CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Wimmer H., (1993). Characteristics of developmental dyslexia in a regular writing system Applied Psycholinguistics 14:1–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Wolf M., Bowers P., (1999). The double-deficit hypothesis for the developmental dyslexia Journal of Educational Psychology 91:1–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Woo E. Y. C., Hoosain R., (1984). Visual and auditory functions of Chinese dyslexics Psychologia 27:164–170Google Scholar
  32. Yamada J., (1995). A case study of developmental dyslexia in Japanese Dyslexia: An International Journal of Research and Practice 1:120–122Google Scholar
  33. Yin W. G., Weekes B. S., (2003). Dyslexia in Chinese: Clues from cognitive neuropsychology Annals of Dyslexia 53:255–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ziegler J. C., Goswami U., (2005). Reading acquisition, developmental dyslexia, and skilled reading across languages: A psycholinguistic grain size theory Psychological Bulletin 131:3–29CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • DAVID W. CHAN
    • 1
    Email author
  • CONNIE S.-H. HO
    • 2
  • SUK-MAN TSANG
    • 3
  • SUK-HAN LEE
    • 3
  • KEVIN K. H. CHUNG
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Educational PsychologyFaculty of Education, The Chinese University of Hong KongHong KongChina
  2. 2.The University of Hong KongHong KongChina
  3. 3.Education and Manpower BureauHong Kong SAR GovernmentHong KongChina

Personalised recommendations