Reading and Writing

, Volume 19, Issue 3, pp 265–290 | Cite as

Word-Decoding Deficits in Norwegian: The Impact of Psycholinguistic Marker Effects

  • T. Nergård-NilssenEmail author


The effects of regularity, frequency, lexicality, and granularity on single word reading in Norwegian children with dyslexia and control children matched for age and reading level were examined. The reading impaired children showed the same pattern of performance as younger children matched for reading level on most tasks except for the fact that they worse at nonword reading. The findings are discussed against different theoretical models of reading.


Developmental dyslexia Frequency Grainsize units Lexicality Nonword reading deficit Norwegian Psycholinguistic marker effects Regularity 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ashcraft, M.H. 2002Cognition3Prentice HallNew JerseyGoogle Scholar
  2. Bruck, M. 1990Word recognition skills of adults with a childhood diagnosis of dyslexiaDevelopmental Psychology26439454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Carlsten, C.T. (2002). Leseprøve 5. klasse. Norsk rettskrivings- og leseprøve for grunnskolen (revidert). N.W. Damm & Søn, 2002.Google Scholar
  4. Castles, A., Coltheart, M. 1993Varieties of developmental dyslexiaCognition47149180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Castles, A., Coltheart, M. 1996Cognitive correlates of developmental surface dyslexia: A single case studyCognitive Neuropsychology132550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. De Jong P.F. (2003). Problems in the acquisition of fluent word decoding in Dutch children. In N. Goulandris (Ed.), Dyslexia in different languages. Cross-linguistic comparisons (pp. 33–52). Whurr Publishers.Google Scholar
  7. Jong, P.F., Leij, A. 1999Specific contributions of phonological abilities to early reading acquisition: Results from a Dutch latent variable longitudinal studyJournal of Educational Psychology91450476Google Scholar
  8. Ehri L.C. (1998). Grapheme–Phoneme Knowledge is Essential for Learning to Read Words in English. In, J.L. Metsala and L.C. Ehri (Eds.), Word recognition in beginning literacy (pp. 3–40). Lawrence Erlbaum Associated, Inc.Google Scholar
  9. Fowler, A.E. 1991How early phonological development might set the stage for phoneme awarenessBrady, S.A.Shankweiler, D.P. eds. Phonological processes in literacy: A tribute to Isabelle Y. LibermanLawrence Erlbaum AssociatesHillsdale, NJ97117Google Scholar
  10. Goswami, U. 2000Phonological representations, reading development and dyslexia: Towards a cross-linguistic theoretical frameworkDyslexia6133151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Goswami, U. 2002Phonology, reading development, and dyslexia: A cross-linguistic perspectiveAnnals of Dyslexia52141163Google Scholar
  12. Goswami, U., Ziegler, J.C., Dalton, L., Schneider, W. 2001Pseudohomophone effects and phonological recoding procedures in reading development in English and GermanJournal of Memory and Language45648664CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Goswami, U., Ziegler, J.C., Dalton, L., Schneider, W. 2003Nonword reading across orthographies: How flexible is the choice of reading units?Applied Psycholinguistics24235247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Goulandris N. (Eds). (2003). Dyslexia in different languages. Cross-linguistic comparisons. Whurr Publishers.Google Scholar
  15. Griffiths, Y.M., Snowling, M.J. 2002Predictors of exception word and nonword reading in dyslexic children: The severity hypothesisJournal of Educational Psychology943443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Grigorenko, E.L. 2001Developmental dyslexia: An update on genes, brains, and environmentsJournal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry4291125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hagtvet, B., Horn, E., Lassen, L., Lauvås, K., Lyster, S., Misund, S. 1998Developing literacy in families with histories of reading problems. Preliminary results from a longitudinal study of young children of dyslexic parentsNorwegian Journal of Special Needs Education22939Google Scholar
  18. Hatcher, P.J., Hulme, C., Ellis, A.W. 1994Ameliorating early reading failure by integrating the teaching of reading and phonological skills: The phonological linkage hypothesisChild Development654157Google Scholar
  19. Hatcher, P.J., Hulme, C., Snowling, M.J. 2004Explicit phoneme training combined with phonic reading instruction helps young children at risk of reading failureJournal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry45338358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hulme, C., Hatcher, P.J., Nation, K., Brown, A., Adams, J., Stuart, G. 2002Phoneme awareness is a better predictor of early reading skill than onset-rime awarenessJournal of Experimental Child Psychology82228Google Scholar
  21. Kinoshita, S., Lupker, S.J. 2003Priming and attentional control of lexical and sublexical pathways in naming: A reevaluationJournal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition29405415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Klinkenberg, J.E., & Skaar, E. (2001). Standardisert Test i Avkoding og Staving (STAS). PPT, Ringerike og Hole.Google Scholar
  23. Laing, E., Hulme, C. 1999Phonological and semantic processes influence beginning reader’s ability to learn to read wordsJournal of Experimental Child Psychology73183207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Landerl, K., Wimmer, H., Frith, U. 1997The impact of orthographic consistency on dyslexia: A German–English comparisonCognition63315334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lundberg, I., Frost, J., Petersen, O. 1998Effects of an extensive program for stimulating phonological awareness in preschool childrenReading Research Quarterly23263384Google Scholar
  26. Lyon, G.R. 1995Toward a definition of dyslexiaAnnals of Dyslexia45327Google Scholar
  27. Lyytinen, H., Ahonen, T., Eklund, K., Guttorm, T., Kulju, P., Laakso, M.L., Leiwo, M., Leppänen, P., Lyytinen, P., Poikkeus, A.-M., Richarson, U., Torppa, M., Viholainen, H. 2004Early development of children at familial risk for dyslexia – follow-up from birth to school ageDyslexia10146178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Metsala, J.L., Brown, G.D.A. 1998Normal and dyslexic reading development: the role of formal modelsHulme, C.Joshi, R.M. eds. Reading and spelling – development and disordersLawrence Erlbaum AssociatesNew Jersey235261Google Scholar
  29. Metsala, J.L., Stanovich, K.E., Brown, G.D.A. 1998Regularity effects and the phonological deficit model of reading disabilities: A meta-analytic reviewJournal of Educational Psychology90279293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Metsala J.L., & Walley A.C. (1998). Spoken vocabulary growth and the segmental restructuring of lexical representations: Precursors to phonemic awareness and early reading ability. In J.L. Metsala & L.C. Ehri (Eds.), Word recognition in beginning literacy (pp. 89–120). Lawrence Erlbaum Associated, Inc.Google Scholar
  31. Muter, V., Hulme, C., Snowling, M.J., Stevenson, J. 2004Phonemes, rimes, vocabulary, and grammatical skills as foundations of early reading development: Evidence From a longitudinal studyDevelopmental Psychology40665681CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Nation, K. 1999Reading skills in hyperlexia: A developmental perspectivePsychological Bulletin125338355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Nergård-Nilssen, T. (2006a). Developmental dyslexia in norwegian: Evidence from single-case studies. Dyslexia, 12, (in press).Google Scholar
  34. Nergård-Nilssen, T. (2006b). Longitudinal case studies of developmental dyslexia in norwegian. Dyslexia, 12, (in press).Google Scholar
  35. Olofsson, Å. (2003). The dyslexic reader and the Swedish language. In N. Goulandris (Ed.), Dyslexia in different languages. Cross-linguistic comparisons (pp. 137–156). Whurr Publishers.Google Scholar
  36. Paulesu, E., Démonet, J.-F., Fazio, F., McCrory, E., Chanoine, V., Brunswick, N., Cappa, S.F., Cossu, G., Habib, M., Frith, C.D., Frith, U. 2001Dyslexia: Cultural diversity and biological unityScience29121652167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Plaut, D., McClelland, J.L., Seidenberg, M.S., Patterson, K. 1996Understanding normal and impaired word reading: Computational principles in quasi-regular domainsPsychological Review10356115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Rack, J.P., Snowling, M.J., Olson, R.K. 1992The nonword reading deficit in developmental dyslexia: A reviewReading Research Quarterly272953Google Scholar
  39. Scarborough, H. (1998). Early identification of children at risk for reading disabilities – phonological awareness and some other promising predictors. In B.K. Shapiro, P.J. Accardo, & A.J. Capute (Eds.), Specific reading disability – a view of the spectrum (pp. 75–119). York Press.Google Scholar
  40. Seidenberg, M.S. (1992). Dyslexia in a computational model of word recognition in reading. In P.B. Gough, L.C. Ehri, & R. Treiman (Eds.), Reading acquisition (pp. 243–273). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  41. Seidenberg, M.S., McClelland, J.L. 1989A distributed, developmental model of word recognition and namingPsychological Review96523568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Seidenberg, M.S., Petersen, A., MacDonald, M.C., Plant, D.C. 1996Pesudohomophone effects and models of word recognitionJournal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition224862CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Seymour, P.H.K. Aro, M. Erskine, J.M. in collaborations with COST Action A8 network2003Foundation literacy acquisition in European orthographiesBritish Journal of Psychology94143174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Shankweiler, D., Crain, S., Brady, S., Macaruso, P. 1992Identifying the causes of reading disabilityGough, P.B.Ehri, L.C.Treiman, R. eds. Reading acquisitionLawrence Erlbaum Associates, IncHillsdale, New Jersey275305Google Scholar
  45. Snowling, M., Hulme, C. 1994The development of phonological skillsPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal society of London3462127Google Scholar
  46. Swan, D., Goswami, U. 1997Phonological awareness deficits in developmental dyslexia and the phonological representations hypothesisJournal of Experimental Child Psychology661841CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Treiman, R. 2000The foundations of LiteracyCurrent Directions in psychological Science98992CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Velluntino, F.R., Fletcher, J.M., Snowling, M.J., Scanlon, D.M. 2004Specific reading disability (dyslexia): What have we learned in the past four decades?Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry45240Google Scholar
  49. Wagner, R.K., Torgesen, J.K., Rashotte, C.A. 1994Development of reading-related phonological processing abilities: New evidence of bi-directional causality from a latent variable longitudinal studyDevelopmental Psychology307387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Wimmer, H. 1996The nonword reading deficit in developmental dyslexia: Evidence from children learning to read GermanJournal of Experimental Child Psychology618090CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Ziegler, J.C., Goswami, U. 2005Reading acquisition, developmental dyslexia, and skilled reading across languages: A psycholinguistic grain size theoryPsychological Bulletin131329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Ziegler, J.C., Perry, C., Coltheart, M. 2003 bSpeed of lexical and nonlexical processing in French: The case of the regularity effectPsychonomic Bulletin & Review10947953Google Scholar
  53. Ziegler, J.C, Perry, C., Ma-Wyatt, A., Ladner, D., Schulte-Körne, G. 2003 aDevelopmental dyslexia in different languages: Language-specific or universal?Journal of Experimental Child Psychology86169193CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Social ScienceUniversity of TromsøTromsøNorway

Personalised recommendations