Reaction Kinetics, Mechanisms and Catalysis

, Volume 128, Issue 2, pp 1111–1126 | Cite as

Improved catalytic performance of mesoporous ZSM-5 nanocrystalline zeolite prepared by the cationic surfactant-ammonium salt mixed agent method in the methanol to gasoline reaction

  • Mina SadraraEmail author
  • Mohammadreza Khanmohammadi Khorrami
  • Amir Bagheri Garmarudi


A mixed organic agent system was employed to achieve mesoporous highly crystalline ZSM-5 zeolite. Decyltrimethylammonium bromide (DeTAB) and tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAOH) were used as the mesogenous and molecular templates respectively in the synthesis gel with a composition of 60SiO2: 1Al2O3:12Na2O:3150H2O:xDeTAB:8TMAOH. The sole presence of DeTAB as the mesogenous template in the synthesis gel led to the high degrees of mesoporosity in the ZSM-5/xD samples but negatively affected the intrinsic properties of zeolites. At the high concentration of DeTAB (x = 0.7), the mesopore volume dramatically increased while the relative crystallinity and the total acid sites critically decreased. By adding the TMA+ ions as a microporous template to the ZSM-5/0.7D synthesis gel, not only a zeolite with well-developed mesoporosity was obtained but also its crystal structure and the intrinsic acidity were preserved. The catalyst samples were characterized by FESEM, TEM, XRD, FT-IR, nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms, NH3-TPD and TGA techniques. The ZSM-5/0.7D/T exhibited higher surface area, higher mesopore volume, higher crystallinity and more acid sites than the ZSM-5/0.7D. The catalytic conversion of methanol to gasoline was conducted in a fixed bed reactor at T = 390 °C and WHSV = 4.74 h−1. In ZSM-5/0.7D/T catalyst the mesoporosity formation without severely damaging the crystal structure and the acidity of the zeolite led to the best catalytic performance including the highest liquid hydrocarbon yield, most stable catalytic performance and longest catalytic lifetime.


ZSM-5 catalyst Cationic surfactant Quaternary ammonium ions Methanol conversion MTG process 



The second author of this paper gratefully acknowledges the support from department of Food Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Macdonald Campus, McGill University and special thanks Dr. Ashraf Ismail for providing research facilities.

Supplementary material

11144_2019_1685_MOESM1_ESM.docx (505 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 504 kb)


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Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mina Sadrara
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mohammadreza Khanmohammadi Khorrami
    • 1
  • Amir Bagheri Garmarudi
    • 1
  1. 1.Chemistry Department, Faculty of ScienceImam Khomeini International UniversityQazvinIran

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