Reaction Kinetics, Mechanisms and Catalysis

, Volume 102, Issue 1, pp 127–142 | Cite as

Adsorption kinetics and isotherm of methylene blue and its removal from aqueous solution using bone charcoal

  • Gh. Ghanizadeh
  • G. AsgariEmail author


This study aims at describing the removal of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution using bone charcoal (BC) as an adsorbent material. The effects of dye concentration, pH, contact time and the adsorbent dose were investigated. The chemical composition and solid structure of BC were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). The surface area was measured via the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) isotherm. The experimental data were analyzed with Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models. The results show that the main component of BC is calcium hydroxylapatite (Ca5(PO4)3OH). The BETSuface area of BC is approximately 100 m2/g. The experimental adsorption isotherm complies with Langmuir equation model (R 2 = 0.99) and the maximum amount of adsorption (q max) was 5 mg/g. The elevation of BC dose led to a decrease in q max, however, increasing the pH led to the elevation of dye adsorption. The kinetic studies revealed that the adsorption of MB is rapid and complies with the pseudo second-order kinetic (R 2 > 0.99). Apart from R 2, four error functions have been used for the validation of data. Analysis of data with Dubinin–Radushkevich isotherm showed that the energy of MB adsorption process onto BC was 2.65 kJ/mol, which implies that the adsorption of MB with BC is a physical adsorption.


Adsorption Methylene blue Dye removal Bone charcoal 



We are thankful to Prof. M. R. Naghii for his scientific comments and efforts in preparing of this article.


  1. 1.
    Ong ST, Lee CK, Zainal ZI (2007) Removal of basic and reactive dyes using ethylenediamine modified rice hull. Bioresour Technol 15:2792–2799CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Attia AA, Girgis BS, Fathy NA (2008) Removal of methylene blue by carbons derived from peach stones by H3PO4 activation: batch and column studies. Dyes Pigm 76:282–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Raposo F, De La Rubia MA, Borja R (2009) Methylene blue number as useful indicator to evaluate the adsorptive capacity of granular activated carbon in batch mode: influence of adsorbate/adsorbent mass ratio and particle size. J Hazard Mater 165:291–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Daneshvar N, Khataee AR, Amani Ghadim AR, Rasoulifard MH (2007) Decolorization of C.I. Acid Yellow 23 solution by electrocoagulation process: investigation of operational parameters and evaluation of specific electrical energy consumption (SEEC). J Hazard Mater 148:566–572CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sariglu M, Aatay UA (2006) Removal of methylene blue by using biosolid. J Glob Nest 8:113–120Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hameed BH, Ahmed AA, Aziz N (2007) Isotherms, kinetics and thermodynamics of acid dye adsorption on activated palm ash. Chem Eng J 133:195–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lodha B, Chaudhari S (2007) Optimization of Fenton-biological treatment scheme for the treatment of aqueous dye solutions. J Hazard Mater 148:459–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mounir B, Pons MN, Zahraa O, Yaacoubi A, Benhammou A (2007) Discoloration of a red cationic dye by supported TiO2 photocatalysis. J Hazard Mater 148:513–520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Al-Funaisi A, Jamrah A, Al-Hanai R (2007) Aspects of cationic dye molecule adsorption to Polygorskite. Desalination 214:327–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sulak MT, Demirbas E, Kobya M (2007) Removal of Astrazon Yellow 7GL from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto wheat bran. Bioresour Technol 13:2590–2598CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Farah JY, EL-Gendy NS, Farahat LA (2007) Biosorption of Astrozone Blue Basic dye from an aqueous solution using dried biomass of Baker’s yeast. J Hazard Mater 148:402–408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Dogen M, Abak H, Alkan M (2009) Adsorption of methylene blue onto hazelnut shell: kinetics and mechanism and adsorptive energy. J Hazard Mater 164:172–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    dos Santos AB, Cervantes FJ, van Lier JB (2007) Review paper on current technologies for decolourisation of textile wastewater: perspective for anaerobic technology. Bioresour Technol 98:2369–2385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mehmet D, Mahir A, Aydın T, Yasemin O (2004) Kinetics and mechanism of removal of methylene blue by adsorption onto perlite. J Hazard Mater B109:141–148Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Purevsuren B, Avid B, Narangerel J, Gerellama T, Davaajav YA (2004) Investigation on the pyrolysis products from animal bone. J Mater Sci 39:737–740CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Choy KKH, McKay G (2005) Sorption of metal ions from aqueous solution using bone charcoal. Environ Int 31:845–854CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Orfão JJ, Silva AI, Pereira JC, Barata SA, Fonseca IM, Faria PC, Pereira MF (2006) Adsorption of a reactive dye on chemically modified activated carbons—influence of pH. J Colloid Interface Sci 296:480–489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Karthikeyan G, Ilango SS (2007) Fluoride sorption using Morringa Indica-based activated carbon. Iran J Environ Health Sci Eng 4:21–28Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    A.S.T.M. Book of Standards. D2862-97R04 (2007) Test method for particle size distribution of granular activated carbon, vol 15.01, 26th edn. ASTM International, West Conshehocken, pp 396–405Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Vágvölgyi V, Kovács J, Horváth E, Kristóf J, Makó É (2008) Investigation of mechanochemically modified kaolinite surfaces by thermoanalytical and spectroscopic methods. J Colloid Interface Sci 317:523–529CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Shieldes JE, Thomas MA, Thommes M (2004) Characterization of porous solids and powders: surface area, pore size and density. Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherland, pp 58–63Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    MWH (2005) Water treatment: principles and design, 2nd edn. Wiley, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Karaoğlu MH, Doğan M, Alkan M (2009) Removal of cationic dye by kaolinite. Microporous Mesoporous Mater 122:20–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Rezaee A, Ghanizadeh G, Behzadiyannejad G, Yazdanbakhsh AR, Siyadat SD (2009) Adsorption of endotoxin from aqueous solution using bone charcoal. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 6:732–737CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Medellin-Castillo NA, Leyva-Ramos R, Ocampo-Perez R, de la Garcia RF, Aragon-Pina A, Martinez-Rosales JM (2007) Adsorption of fluoride from water solution on bone char. Ind Eng Chem Res 46:9205–9212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Al-Ghouti MA, Khraisheh MAM, Ahmad MNM, Allen S (2009) Adsorption behaviour of methylene blue onto Jordanian diatomite: a kinetic study. J Hazard Mater 165:589–598CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Doğan M, Karaoğlu MH, Alkan M (2009) Adsorption kinetics of maxilon yellow 4GL and maxilon red GRL dyes on kaolinite. J Hazard Mater 165:1142–1151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bilgiç C (2005) Investigation of the factors affecting organic cation adsorption on some silicate minerals. J Colloid Interface Sci 281:33–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ghosh D, Bhattacharyya KG (2002) Adsorption of methylene blue on kaolinite. Appl Clay Sci 20:295–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Choy KKH, McKay G (2005) Sorption of cadmium, copper, and zinc ions onto bone char using Crank diffusion model. Chemosphere 60:1141–1150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Abe I, Iwasaki S, Tokimoto T, Kawasaki N, Nakamura T, Tanada S (2004) Adsorption of fluoride ions onto carbonaceous materials. J Colloid Interface Sci 275:35–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Mjengera H, Mkongo G (2003) Appropriate deflouridation technology for use in flourotic areas in Tanzania. Phys Chem Earth Parts A/B/C 28:1097–1104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Mortazavi SB, Asgari Gh, Hashemian SJ, Moussavi G (2010) Degradation of humic acids through heterogeneous catalytic ozonation with bone charcoal. Reac Kinet Mech Cat 100:471Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hameed BH, Ahmad AA (2009) Batch adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution by garlic peel, an agricultural waste biomass. J Hazard Mater 164:870–875CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Woolard CD, Strong J, Erasmus CR (2002) Evaluation of the use of modified coal ash as a potential sorbent for organic waste streams. Appl Geochem 17:1159–1164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Banat F, Al-Asheh S, Al-Ahmad R, Bni-Khalid F (2007) Bench-scale and packed bed sorption of methylene blue using treated olive pomace and charcoal. Bioresour Technol 98:3017–3025CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Tamez Uddin Md, Akhtarul Islam Md, Mahmud S, Rukanuzzaman Md (2009) Adsorptive removal of methylene blue by tea waste. J Hazard Mater 164:53–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Chakrabarti S, Dutta BK (2005) On the adsorption and diffusion of methylene blue in glass fibers. J Colloid Interface Sci 286:807–811CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Vasanth Kumar K, Ramamurthi V, Sivanesan S (2005) Modeling the mechanism involved during the sorption of methylene blue onto fly ash. J Colloid Interface Sci 284:14–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    AWWW (1999) Water quality and treatment. In: Pontius FW (ed) A handbook of community water supplies, 4th ed. Mac Graw-Hill, Inc., Washington, DC, pp 613–781Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Bayramoglu G, Altintas B, Arica MY (2009) Adsorption kinetics and thermodynamic parameters of cationic dyes from aqueous solutions by using a new strong cation-exchange resin. Chem Eng J 152:339–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Ghanizadeh Gh, Ehrampoush MH, Ghaneian MT (2010) Application of iron impregnated activated carbon for removal of arsenic from water. Iran J Environ Health Sci Eng 7:145–156Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Behnamfard A, Salarirad MM (2009) Equilibrium and kinetic studies on free cyanide adsorption from aqueous solution by activated carbon. J Hazard Mater 170:127–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Yu J, Li X, Sun B, Jun Y, Chi R (2009) Adsorption of methylene blue and rhodamine B on baker’s yeast and photocatalytic regeneration of the biosorbent. Biochem Eng J 45:145–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Kundu S, Gupta AK (2007) Adsorption characteristics of As(III) from aqueous solution on iron oxide coated cement (IOCC). J Hazard Mater 142:97–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Health Research Center and School of HealthBaqiyatallah University of Medical SciencesTehranI.R. Iran
  2. 2.Environmental Health Engineering Department, School of Public HealthHamadan University of Medical SciencesHamadanI.R. Iran

Personalised recommendations