Effects of modification of the polar ionosphere with high-power short-wave extraordinary-mode HF waves produced by the spear heating facility
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We present the results of modifying the F2 layer of the polar ionosphere experimentally with highpower HF extraordinary-mode waves. The experiments were performed in October 2010 using the short-wave SPEAR heating facility (Longyearbyen, Spitsbergen). To diagnose the effects of high-power HF waves by the aspect-scattering method in a network of diagnostic paths, we used the short-wave Doppler radar CUTLASS (Hankasalmi, Finland) and the incoherent scatter radar ESR (Longyearbyen, Spitsbergen). Excitation of small-scale artificial ionospheric irregularities was revealed, which were responsible for the aspect and backward scattering of the diagnostic signals. The measurements performed by the ESR incoherent scatter radar simultaneously with the heating demonstrated changes in the parameters of the ionospheric plasma, specifically, an increase in the electron density by 10–25 % and an increase in the electron temperature by 10–30 % at the altitudes of the F2 layer, as well as formation of sporadic ionization at altitudes of 140–180 km (below the F2 layer maximum). To explain the effects of ionosphere heating with HF extraordinary-mode waves, we propose a hypothesis of transformation of extraordinary electromagnetic waves to ordinary in the anisotropic, smoothly nonuniform ionosphere.
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