The Simplified Chinese version of SF-6Dv2: translation, cross-cultural adaptation and preliminary psychometric testing

  • Jing WuEmail author
  • Shitong Xie
  • Xiaoning He
  • Gang Chen
  • John E. Brazier
Brief Communication



To translate, cross-culturally adapt and preliminarily test the Simplified Chinese version of SF-6Dv2 among the Chinese general population.


The translation followed the international guidelines. Face-to-face cognitive debriefing was carried out in a small sample of the Chinese general population, using both think-aloud and retrospective probing methods. Preliminary psychometric properties (including acceptability, ceiling/floor effect and known-group validity) were investigated using a cross-sectional survey which was conducted in a representative sample of the general population in Tianjin, China.


Translation was conducted by forward- and back-translation, followed by harmonization and expert review. Two minor modifications were made during cognitive debriefing. Five hundred and nine respondents (54.4% males, aged 18–86 years) participated in the psychometric testing survey. The mean (standard deviation) duration of finishing SF-6Dv2 was 96.9 s (58.5 s). No respondents claimed difficulties on understanding/answering, and no ceiling/floor effect was found in the total summary score. Known-group validity verified that the questionnaire was able to distinguish between subgroups in terms of whether having chronic conditions.


The Simplified Chinese version of SF-6Dv2 is demonstrated to be conceptually equivalent with the original English version, which is also understandable and easy to finish among the Chinese general population.


SF-6D Translation Cross-cultural adaption Psychometric test Health-related quality of life China 



We are grateful to Dr. David Churchman and his colleagues within the Clinical Outcomes team at Oxford University Innovation (OUI) Ltd for their contributions to the translation process and the Translation Certification they issued. We also thank the external experts, Feng Xie, Nan Luo, Shunping Li, Hongyan Wu, Xuejing Jin and Haijing Guan, for reviewing the draft translation and proposing valuable suggestions.


This study was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 71673197 & 71804122).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

The protocol of this study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of School of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Tianjin University (No. 20180615). Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Supplementary material

11136_2020_2419_MOESM1_ESM.docx (27 kb)
Supplementary file1 (DOCX 27 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Pharmaceutical Science and TechnologyTianjin UniversityTianjinChina
  2. 2.Centre for Health Economics, Monash Business SchoolMonash UniversityMelbourneAustralia
  3. 3.School of Health and Related ResearchUniversity of SheffieldSheffieldUK

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