Advertisement

Joint association of bullying and cyberbullying in health-related quality of life in a sample of adolescents

  • Joaquín González-CabreraEmail author
  • Juan Manuel Machimbarrena
  • Jessica Ortega-Barón
  • Aitor Álvarez-Bardón
Article

Abstract

Purpose

Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has been analyzed in relation to multiple psychosocial and health problems. However, only a few studies have analyzed the impact of bullying and cyberbullying on HRQoL. The main purpose of this study was to analyze the level of severity of bullying and cyberbullying on HRQoL. The effects of different roles, especially the conjunctions of of victim–cybervictim and bully–victim/cyberbully–cybervictim on HRQoL, were explored.

Methods

An analytical and cross-sectional study was conducted in a region of northern Spain. Random and representative sampling was employed. The participants included 12, 285 adolescents between 11 and 18 years of age, with a mean age of 14.69 ± 1.73. The Spanish version of the KIDSCREEN-27, the Spanish version of the European bullying intervention project questionnaire (EBIPQ), and the cyberbullying triangulation questionnaire (CTQ) were employed.

Results

The prevalence of bullying victimization, cybervictimization, bullying perpetration, and cyberbullying perpetration was 12%, 8.1%, 10.4%, and 7%, respectively. Significant and negative correlations between all the dimensions of the EBIPQ and the CTQ with the KIDSCREEN-27 were found. Victimization and cybervictimization had more impact than bullying perpetration and cyberbullying perpetration, especially on psychological well-being and school environment. The mixed roles of the victim–cybervictim and victim–cybervictim/bully–cyberbully obtained lower scores than the remaining roles in all the dimensions of KIDSCREEN-27.

Conclusions

Those in mixed roles related to victimization and cybervictimization obtained the lowest scores in all HRQoL dimensions. The results enhance an understanding of the severity of the problem of bullying and cyberbullying and their impact on HRQoL.

Keywords

Health-related quality of life Bullying Cyberbullying Child Adolescence 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research was funded by Spanish Ministry of Economy, Industry and Competitiveness, RTI2018-094212-B-I00: (CIBER-AACC); and by the International University of la Rioja, Project “Cyberpsychology” (Trienio Own Research Plan 4 [2017-2020]). We wish to thank the participating schools, their management teams, faculty, and, especially, the students and their families for realizing the importance of the study. We are especially grateful to the “Dirección General de Ordenación Académica e Innovación Educativa (Consejería de Educación y Cultura, Principado de Asturias, España).”

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

The study obtained the approval of legal guardians through a procedure with passive consent.

References

  1. 1.
    Wallander, J. L., & Koot, H. M. (2016). Quality of life in children: A critical examination of concepts, approaches, issues, and future directions. Clinical Psychology Review,45, 131–143.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2015.11.007.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gill, T. M., & Feinstein, A. R. (1994). A critical appraisal of the quality of quality-of-life measurements. The Journal of the American Medical Association,272(8), 619–626.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.1994.03520080061045.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Seedhouse, D. (2001). Health: The foundations for achievement. Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Jernbro, C., Tindberg, Y., Lucas, S., & Janson, S. (2015). Quality of life among Swedish school children who experienced multitype child maltreatment. Acta Paediatrica,104(3), 320–325.  https://doi.org/10.1111/apa.12873.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    da Silva-Júnior, I. F., Hartwig, A. D., Demarco, G. T., Stüermer, V. M., Scobernatti, G., Goettems, M. L., et al. (2018). Health-related quality of life of maltreated children and adolescents who attended a service center in Brazil. Quality of Life Research,27(8), 2157–2164.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11136-018-1881-9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Afifi, T. O., Enns, M. W., Cox, B. J., de Graaf, R., ten Have, M., & Sareen, J. (2007). Child abuse and health-related quality of life in adulthood. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease,195(10), 797–804.  https://doi.org/10.1097/NMD.0b013e3181567fdd.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Salmela-Aro, K. (2011). Stages of adolescence. In B. Bradford Brown & M. J. Prinstein (Eds), Encyclopedia of adolescence (Vol. 1, pp. 360–368). Oxford: Elsevier Inc.  https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-373951-3.00043-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Higuita-Gutiérrez, L. F., & Cardona-Arias, J. A. (2015). Concepto de calidad de vida en la adolescencia: una revisión crítica de la literatura. Revista CES Psicología,8(1), 155–168.  https://doi.org/10.21615/3031.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Olweus, D. (2013). School bullying: Development and some important challenges. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology,9(1), 751–780.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-050212-185516.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Tokunaga, R. S. (2010). Following you home from school: A critical review and synthesis of research on cyberbullying victimization. Computers in Human Behavior,26(3), 277–287.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2009.11.014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Modecki, K. L., Minchin, J., Harbaugh, A. G., Guerra, N. G., & Runions, K. C. (2014). Bullying prevalence across contexts: A meta-analysis measuring cyber and traditional bullying. Journal of Adolescent Health,55(5), 602–611.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2014.06.007.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Zych, I., Ortega-Ruiz, R., & Del Rey, R. (2015). Systematic review of theoretical studies on bullying and cyberbullying: Facts, knowledge, prevention, and intervention. Aggression and Violent Behavior,23, 1–21.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2015.10.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Brochado, S., Soares, S., & Fraga, S. (2017). A scoping review on studies of cyberbullying prevalence among adolescents. Trauma, Violence, and Abuse,18(5), 523–531.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1524838016641668.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wilkins-Shurmer, A., O’Callaghan, M. J., Najman, J. M., Bor, W., Williams, G. M., & Anderson, M. J. (2003). Association of bullying with adolescent health-related quality of life. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health,39(6), 436–441.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1440-1754.2003.00184.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Analitis, F., Velderman, M. K., Ravens-Sieberer, U., Detmar, S., Erhart, M., Herdman, M., … Group, T. E. K. (2009). Being bullied: associated factors in children and adolescents 8 to 18 years old in 11 european countries. Pediatrics, 123(2), 569–577.  https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2008-0323 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Frisén, A., & Bjarnelind, S. (2010). Health-related quality of life and bullying in adolescence. Acta Paediatrica,99(4), 597–603.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1651-2227.2009.01664.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Smith, P. K., Shu, S., & Madsen, K. (2001). Characteristics of victims of school bullying: Developmental changes in coping strategies and skills. In J. Juvonen & S. Graham (Eds.), Peer harassment in school: The plight of the vulnerable and victimized (pp. 332–351). New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kowalski, R. M., & Limber, S. P. (2013). Psychological, physical, and academic correlates of cyberbullying and traditional bullying. Journal of Adolescent Health,53(1 SUPPL), S13–S20.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2012.09.018.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Vélez Galárraga, R., López Aguilà, S., & Rajmil, L. (2009). Gender and self-perceived health in childhood and adolescence in Spain. Gaceta Sanitaria,23(5), 433–439.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gaceta.2009.01.014.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hidalgo-Rasmussen, C., Molina, T., Molina, R., Sepúlveda, R., Martínez, V., Montaño, R., … George, M. (2015). Influence of bullying on the quality of life perception of Chilean students. Revista Médica de Chile, 143, 716–723.  https://doi.org/10.4067/s0034-98872015000600004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hidalgo-Rasmussen, C. A., Ramírez-López, G., Rajmil, L., Skalicky, A., & Hidalgo-San Martín, A. (2018). Bullying and health-related quality of life in children and adolescent Mexican students. Ciência & Saúde Coletiva,23(7), 2433–2441.  https://doi.org/10.1590/1413-81232018237.16392016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kadiroğlu, T., Hendekci, A., & Tosun, Ö. (2018). Investigation of the relationship between peer victimization and quality of life in school-age adolescents. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing,32(6), 850–854.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apnu.2018.06.010.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    González-Cabrera, J., León-Mejía, A., Beranuy-Fargues, M., Gutiérrez-Ortega, M., Alvarez-Bardón, A., & Machimbarrena, J. M. (2018). Relationship between cyberbullying and health-related quality of life in a sample of children and adolescents. Quality of Life Research,27(10), 2609–2618.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11136-018-1901-9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Mishna, F., Khoury-Kassabri, M., Gadalla, T., & Daciuk, J. (2012). Risk factors for involvement in cyber bullying: Victims, bullies and bully-victims. Children and Youth Services Review,34(1), 63–70.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2011.08.032.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    González-Cabrera, J. M., León-Mejía, A., Machimbarrena, J. M., Balea, A., & Calvete, E. (2019). Psychometric properties of the cyberbullying triangulation questionnaire: A prevalence analysis through seven roles. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology.  https://doi.org/10.1111/sjop.12518.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Festl, R., Vogelgesang, J., Scharkow, M., & Quandt, T. (2017). Longitudinal patterns of involvement in cyberbullying: Results from a Latent Transition Analysis. Computers in Human Behavior,66, 7–15.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2016.09.027.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Cook, C. R., Williams, K. R., Guerra, N. G., Kim, T. E., & Sadek, S. (2010). Predictors of bullying and victimization in childhood and adolescence: A meta-analytic investigation. School Psychology Quarterly,25(2), 65–83.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0020149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kelly, E. V., Newton, N. C., Stapinski, L. A., Slade, T., Barrett, E. L., Conrod, P. J., et al. (2015). Suicidality, internalizing problems and externalizing problems among adolescent bullies, victims and bully-victims. Preventive Medicine,73, 100–105.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2015.01.020.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Zych, I., Ortega-Ruiz, R., & Marín-López, I. (2016). Cyberbullying: A systematic review of research, its prevalence and assessment issues in Spanish studies. Psicologia Educativa,22(1), 5–18.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pse.2016.03.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Montero, I., & León, O. G. (2007). A guide for naming research studies in Psychology. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology,7(3), 847–862.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    The KIDSCREEN Group Europe. (2006). The KIDSCREEN QuestionnairesHandbook.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ortega-Ruiz, R., Del Rey, R., & Casas, J. A. (2016). Evaluar el bullying y el cyberbullying validación española del EBIP-Q y del ECIP-Q. Psicologia Educativa,22(1), 71–79.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pse.2016.01.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Calvete, E., Orue, I., Estévez, A., Villardón, L., & Padilla, P. (2010). Cyberbullying in adolescents: Modalities and aggressors’ profile. Computers in Human Behavior,26(5), 1128–1135.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2010.03.017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Corp, I. B. M. (2015). Statistical package for the social sciences for windows. Armonk: International Business Machines Corp.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Team, R. C. (2015). R: a language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna, Austria: Foundation for Statistical ComputingGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Revelle, W. (2015). R: a language and environment for statistical computing.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Cronbach, L. J. (1951). Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika,16(3), 297–334.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02310555.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Elosua, P., & Zumbo, B. D. (2008). Reliability coefficients for ordered categorical response scales. Psichothema,20(4), 896–901.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    McDonald, R. P. (1999). Test theory: A unified treatment. Test theory: A unified treatment. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Beckman, L., Svensson, M., & Frisen, A. (2016). Preference-based health-related quality of life among victims of bullying. Quality of Life Research,25(2), 303–309.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11136-015-1101-9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Smith, P. K. (2019). Narratives in research and interventions on cyberbullying among young people. In H. Vandebosch & L. Green (Eds.), Narratives in research and interventions on cyberbullying among young people (pp. 9–27). London: Springer International Publishing.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-04960-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Yang, A., Li, X., & Salmivalli, C. (2016). Maladjustment of bully-victims: Validation with three identification methods. Educational Psychology,36(8), 1390–1407.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01443410.2015.1015492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ortega, R., Elipe, P., Mora-Merchán, J. A., Genta, M. L., Brighi, A., Guarini, A., … Tippett, N. (2012). The emotional impact of bullying and cyberbullying on victims: a European cross‐national study. Aggressive Behavior, 38(5), 342–356.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ab.21440 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Garaigordobil, M., & Machimbarrena, J. M. (2019). Victimization and perpetration of bullying/cyberbullying: Connections with emotional and behavioral problems and childhood stress. Psychosocial Intervention.  https://doi.org/10.5093/pi2019a3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Iranzo, B., Buelga, S., Cava, M. J., & Ortega-Barón, J. (2019). Cyberbullying, psychosocial adjustment, and suicidal ideation in adolescence. Psychosocial Intervention.  https://doi.org/10.5093/pi2019a5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Machimbarrena, J. M., Calvete, E., Fernández-González, L., Álvarez-Bardón, A., Álvarez-Fernández, L., & González-Cabrera, J. (2018). Internet risks: An overview of victimization in cyberbullying, cyber dating abuse, sexting, online grooming and problematic internet use. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.  https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112471.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Calvete, E., Fernández-González, L., González-Cabrera, J. M., & Gámez-Guadix, M. (2018). Continued bullying victimization in adolescents: Maladaptive schemas as a mediational mechanism. Journal of Youth and Adolescence,47(3), 650–660.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-017-0677-5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Gámez-Guadix, M., Gini, G., & Calvete, E. (2015). Stability of cyberbullying victimization among adolescents: Prevalence and association with bully-victim status and psychosocial adjustment. Computers in Human Behavior,53, 140–148.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2015.07.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Kowalski, R. M., Giumetti, G. W., Schroeder, A. N., & Lattanner, M. R. (2014). Bullying in the digital age: A critical review and meta-analysis of cyberbullying research among youth. Psychological Bulletin,140(4), 1073–1137.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0035618.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Smokowski, P. R., Evans, C. B. R., & Cotter, K. L. (2014). The differential impacts of episodic, chronic, and cumulative physical bullying and cyberbullying: The effects of victimization on the school experiences, social support, and mental health of rural adolescents. Violence and Victims,29(6), 1029–1046.  https://doi.org/10.1891/0886-6708.VV-D-13-000761029.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Yudes-Gómez, C., Baridon-Chauvie, D., & González-Cabrera, J.-M. (2018). Cyberbullying and Problematic internet use in Colombia, Uruguay and Spain: Cross-cultural study. Comunicar,26(56), 2018.  https://doi.org/10.3916/C56-2018-05.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Connell, N. M., Schell-Busey, N. M., Pearce, A. N., & Negro, P. (2014). Badgrlz? Exploring sex differences in cyberbullying behaviors. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice,12(3), 209–228.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1541204013503889.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Pabian, S., & Vandebosch, H. (2016). An investigation of short-term longitudinal associations between social anxiety and victimization and perpetration of traditional bullying and cyberbullying. Journal of Youth and Adolescence,45(2), 328–339.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-015-0259-3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    González-Cabrera, J., Balea, A., Vallina, M., Moya, A., & Laviana, O. (2017). Informe ejecutivo del Proyecto Ciberastur [CYBERASTUR Executive project report]. Oviedo. Retrieved from https://goo.gl/wLxQ6i. Accessed 28 Oct 2019.
  55. 55.
    Negriff, S., & Susman, E. J. (2011). Pubertal timing, depression, and externalizing problems: A framework, review, and examination of gender differences. Journal of Research on Adolescence,21(3), 717–746.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-7795.2010.00708.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Mestre-Escriva, M. V., Samper-Garcia, P., Frias-Navarro, D., & Tur-Porcar, A. M. (2009). Are women more empathetic than men? A longitudinal study in adolescence. Spanish Journal of Psychology,12(1), 76–83.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S1138741600001499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Pouwels, J. L., Souren, P. M., Lansu, T. A. M., & Cillessen, A. H. N. (2016). Stability of peer victimization: A meta-analysis of longitudinal research. Developmental Review,40, 1–24.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dr.2016.01.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Machimbarrena, J. M., & Garaigordobil, M. (2017). Bullying/cyberbullying in 5th and 6th grade: Differences between public and private schools. Anales de Psicologia,33(2), 319–326.  https://doi.org/10.6018/analesps.33.2.249381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Del Rey, R., Casas, J. A., & Ortega, R. (2016). Impact of the ConRed program on different cyberbulling roles. Aggressive Behavior,42(2), 123–135.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ab.21608.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Ortega-Barón, J., Buelga, S., Ayllón, E., Martínez-Ferrer, B., & Cava, M.-J. (2019). Effects of intervention program prev@cib on traditional bullying and cyberbullying. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health,16(4), 527.  https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16040527.CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Garaigordobil, M., & Martínez-Valderrey, V. (2014). Efecto del Cyberprogram 2.0 sobre la reducción de la victimización y la mejora de la competencia social en la adolescencia. Revista de Psicodidactica,19(2), 289–306.  https://doi.org/10.1387/revpsicodidact.10239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Quintana-Orts, C., & Rey, L. (2018). Traditional bullying, cyberbullying and mental health in early adolescents: Forgiveness as a protective factor of peer victimisation. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.  https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112389.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of EducationUniversidad Internacional de la Rioja (UNIR)LogroñoSpain
  2. 2.Faculty of PsychologyUniversity of the Basque Country UPV/EHUDonostiaSpain

Personalised recommendations