Advertisement

Differential associations between interpersonal variables and quality-of-life in a sample of college students

Abstract

Purpose

Humans are fundamentally social beings, and the relationships we form with others are crucial for our well-being. Research across a variety of domains has established the association between a variety of interpersonal factors and health outcomes, including quality-of-life. However, there is a need for a more integrative, holistic analysis of these variables and how they relate to one another.

Methods

Undergraduate students (n = 1456) from four universities across the United States completed self-report measures of their quality-of-life and a variety of interpersonal factors identified as important predictors across the literature. We examined zero-order correlations between these measures and quality-of-life, estimated a path model to look at unique variance accounted for by each, and finally used network analysis to examine the network of direct and indirect associations among these variables and quality-of-life.

Results

Loneliness had the strongest association with quality-of-life across all analyses. When examining the unique association between quality-of-life and each interpersonal variable, six remained statistically significant: loneliness, social support, social connectedness, emotional intelligence, intimacy with one’s romantic partner, and empathic concern. These results were supported by the network model, which found direct associations between quality-of-life and these six variables as well as indirect associations with all other interpersonal variables in the model.

Conclusions

Results from this research suggest that interpersonal factors in general, and loneliness in particular, are strongly associated with quality-of-life. Future research is needed to establish the direction of these effects and examine for whom these findings are generalizable.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Access options

Buy single article

Instant unlimited access to the full article PDF.

US$ 39.95

Price includes VAT for USA

Subscribe to journal

Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.

US$ 199

This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3

References

  1. 1.

    Bugental, D. B. (2000). Acquisition of the algorithms of social life: A domain-based approach. Psychological Bulletin,126(2), 187–219. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.126.2.187.

  2. 2.

    Holt-Lunstad, J., & Smith, T. B. (2012). Social relationships and mortality. Social and Personality Psychology Compass. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-9004.2011.00406.x.

  3. 3.

    Holt-Lunstad, J., Smith, T. B., Baker, M., Harris, T., & Stephenson, D. (2015). Loneliness and social isolation as risk factors for mortality: A meta-analytic review. Perspectives on Psychological Science,10(2), 227–237. https://doi.org/10.1177/1745691614568352.

  4. 4.

    Holt-Lunstad, J., Smith, T. B., & Layton, J. B. (2010). Social relationships and mortality risk: A meta-analytic review. PLoS Medicine,7(7), e1000316. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000316.

  5. 5.

    Mcpherson, M., Smith-lovin, L., & Brashears, M. E. (2006). Social isolation in America: Changes in core discussion networks over two decades. American Sociological Review,71(3), 353–375. https://doi.org/10.1177/000312240607100301.

  6. 6.

    Cigna. (2018). Cigna U.S. loneliness index. Retrieved November 20, 2018 from https://www.multivu.com/players/English/8294451-cigna-us-loneliness-survey/docs/IndexReport_1524069371598-173525450.pdf

  7. 7.

    DiJulio, B., Hamel, L., Muñana, C., & Brodie, M. (2018). Loneliness and social isolation in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Japan: An international survey. San Francisco, CA.

  8. 8.

    Cacioppo, J. T., Cacioppo, S., Capitanio, J. P., & Cole, S. W. (2015). The neuroendocrinology of social isolation. Annual Review of Psychology,66(1), 733–767. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-010814-015240.

  9. 9.

    Caspi, A., Harrington, H., Moffitt, T. E., Milne, B. J., & Poulton, R. (2006). Socially isolated children 20 years later. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine,160(8), 805. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpedi.160.8.805.

  10. 10.

    Cole, S. W., Hawkley, L. C., Arevalo, J. M., Sung, C. Y., Rose, R. M., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2007). Social regulation of gene expression in human leukocytes. Genome Biology,8, R189. https://doi.org/10.1186/gb-2007-8-9-r189.

  11. 11.

    Cacioppo, J. T., Ernst, J. M., Burleson, M. H., McClintock, M. K., Malarkey, W. B., Hawkley, L. C., et al. (2000). Lonely traits and concomitant physiological processes: The MacArthur social neuroscience studies. International Journal of Psychophysiology,35(2–3), 143–154. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-8760(99)00049-5.

  12. 12.

    DiMatteo, M. R. (2004). Social support and patient adherence to medical treatment: A meta-analysis. Health Psychology,23(2), 207–218. https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-6133.23.2.207.

  13. 13.

    Hawkley, L. C., Thisted, R. A., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2009). Loneliness predicts reduced physical activity: Cross-sectional & longitudinal analyses. Health Psychology,28(3), 354–363. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0014400.

  14. 14.

    Cacioppo, J. T., Hughes, M. E., Waite, L. J., Hawkley, L. C., & Thisted, R. A. (2006). Loneliness as a specific risk factor for depressive symptoms: Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Psychology and Aging,21(1), 140–151. https://doi.org/10.1037/0882-7974.21.1.140.

  15. 15.

    Laursen, T. M., Munk-Olsen, T., Nordentoft, M., & Mortensen, P. B. (2007). Increased mortality among patients admitted with major psychiatric disorders: A register-based study comparing mortality in unipolar depressive disorder, bipolar affective disorder, schizoaffective disorder, and schizophrenia. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. https://doi.org/10.4088/JCP.v68n0612.

  16. 16.

    Wulsin, L. R., Vaillant, G. E., & Wells, V. E. (1999). A systematic review of the mortality of depression. Psychosomatic Medicine,61(1), 6–17. https://doi.org/10.1097/00006842-199901000-00003.

  17. 17.

    House, J. S., Landis, K. R., & Umberson, D. (1988). Social relationships and health recent scientific. Science,241(4865), 540–545. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.3399889.

  18. 18.

    Duck, S., & Perlman, D. (1985). The thousand islands of personal relationships: A prescriptive analysis for future explorations. In S. Duck & D. Perlman (Eds.), Understanding personal relationships: An interdisciplinary approach (pp. 1–15). London: Sage.

  19. 19.

    Berscheid, E. (1995). Help wanted: A grand theorist of interpersonal relationships, sociologist or anthropologist preferred. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships,12(4), 529–533. https://doi.org/10.1177/0265407595124005.

  20. 20.

    Perlman, D., & Duck, S. (2006). The seven seas of the study of personal relationships: From “The Thousand Islands” to interconnected waterways. In A. L. Vangelisti & D. Perlman (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of personal relationships (pp. 11–34). New York: Cambridge University Press.

  21. 21.

    Reis, H. T. (2007). Steps toward the ripening of relationship science. Personal Relationships,14(1), 1–23. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-6811.2006.00139.x.

  22. 22.

    Schutte, N. S., Malouff, J. M., Bobik, C., Coston, T. D., Greeson, C., Jedlicka, C., et al. (2001). Emotional intelligence and interpersonal relations. The Journal of Social Psychology,141(4), 523–536. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224540109600569.

  23. 23.

    Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., Hill, J., Raste, Y., & Plumb, I. (2001). The “Reading the Mind in the Eyes” Test Revised Version: A study with normal adults, and adults with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry,42(2), 241–251. https://doi.org/10.1111/1469-7610.00715.

  24. 24.

    Davis, M. H. (1983). Measuring individual differences in empthy: Evidence for a multidimensional approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,44(1), 113–126.

  25. 25.

    Reis, H. T., & Shaver, P. (1988). Intimacy as an interpersonal process. In S. W. Duck (Ed.), Handbook of personal relationships (pp. 367–389). Chichester: Wiley.

  26. 26.

    Cacioppo, J. T., Hawkley, L. C., Crawford, E. E., Ernst, J. M., Burleson, M. H., Kowalewski, R. B., et al. (2002). Loneliness and health: Potential mechanisms. Psychosomatic Medicine,64(3), 407–417. https://doi.org/10.1097/00006842-200205000-00005.

  27. 27.

    Lee, R. M., Draper, M., & Lee, S. (2001). Social connectedness, dysfunctional interpersonal behaviors, and psychological distress: Testing a mediator model. Journal of Counseling Psychology,48(3), 310–318. https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-0167.48.3.310.

  28. 28.

    Sherbourne, C. D., & Stewart, A. L. (1991). The MOS social support survey. Social Science and Medicine,32(6), 705–714. https://doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536(91)90150-B.

  29. 29.

    Kuczynski, A. M., Kanter, J. W., Wetterneck, C. T., Olaz, F. O., Singh, R. S., Lee, E. B., et al. (2019). Measuring intimacy as a contextual-behavioral process: Psychometric development and evaluation of the Awareness, Courage, and Responsiveness Scale. Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcbs.2019.02.004.

  30. 30.

    World Health Organization Quality of Life Group. (1998). Development of the World Health Organization WHOQOL-BREF quality of life assessment. Psychological Medicine,28(3), 551–558. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291798006667.

  31. 31.

    Skevington, S. M., Lotfy, M., & O’Connell, K. A. (2004). The World Health Organization’s WHOQOL-BREF quality of life assessment: Psychometric properties and results of the international field trial a Report from the WHOQOL Group. Quality of Life Research,13(2), 299–310. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:QURE.0000018486.91360.00.

  32. 32.

    Masthoff, E. D., Trompenaars, F. J., Van Heck, G. L., Hodiamont, P. P., & De Vries, J. (2006). Quality of life and psychopathology: Investigations into their relationship. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry,40(4), 333–340. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1614.2006.01799.x.

  33. 33.

    Gerino, E., Rollè, L., Sechi, C., & Brustia, P. (2017). Loneliness, resilience, mental health, and quality of life in old age: A structural equation model. Frontiers in Psychology,8, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.02003.

  34. 34.

    Descutner, C. J., & Thelen, M. H. (1991). Development and validation of a Fear-of-Intimacy Scale. Psychological Assessment,3(2), 218–225. https://doi.org/10.1037/1040-3590.3.2.218.

  35. 35.

    Greenfield, S., & Thelen, M. H. (1997). Validation of the Fear of Intimacy Scale with a lesbian and gay male population. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships,14(5), 707–716. https://doi.org/10.1177/0265407597145007.

  36. 36.

    Montesi, J. L., Conner, B. T., Gordon, E. A., Fauber, R. L., Kim, K. H., & Heimberg, R. G. (2013). On the relationship among social anxiety, intimacy, sexual communication, and sexual satisfaction in young couples. Archives of Sexual Behavior,42(1), 81–91. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-012-9929-3.

  37. 37.

    Thelen, M. H., Vander Wal, J. S., Thomas, A. M., & Harmon, R. (2000). Fear of intimacy among dating couples. Behavior Modification,24(2), 223–240. https://doi.org/10.1177/0145445500242004.

  38. 38.

    Russell, D. W. (1996). UCLA Loneliness Scale (Version 3): Reliability, validity, and factor structure. Journal of Personality Assessment,66(1), 20–40. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327752jpa6601_2.

  39. 39.

    Cacioppo, J. T., Hawkley, L. C., Ernst, J. M., Burleson, M., Berntson, G. G., Nouriani, B., et al. (2006). Loneliness within a nomological net: An evolutionary perspective. Journal of Research in Personality,40(6), 1054–1085. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2005.11.007.

  40. 40.

    Cacioppo, J. T., Norris, C. J., Decety, J., & Monteleone, G. (2010). In the eye of the beholder: Individual differences in perceived social isolation predict regional brain activation to social stimuli. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience,21(1), 83–92. https://doi.org/10.1162/jocn.2009.21007.

  41. 41.

    Pinquart, M., & Sörensen, S. (2003). Risk factors for loneliness in adulthood and old age—a meta-analysis. In S. P. Shohov (Ed.), Advances in psychology research (Vol. 19, pp. 111–143). Hauppauge: Nova Science Publishers.

  42. 42.

    Hawkley, L. C., Hughes, M. E., Waite, L. J., Masi, C. M., Thisted, R. A., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2008). From social structural factors to perceptions of relationship quality and loneliness: The Chicago Health, Aging, and Social Relations Study. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences,63(6), S375–S384. https://doi.org/10.1093/geronb/63.6.s375.

  43. 43.

    Lee, R. M., & Robbins, S. B. (1995). Measuring belongingness: The social connectedness and the social assurance scales. Journal of Counseling Psychology,42(2), 232–241. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0167.42.2.232.

  44. 44.

    Lee, R. M., & Robbins, S. B. (2000). Understanding social connectedness in college women and men. Journal of Counseling & Development,78(4), 484–491. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6676.2000.tb01932.x.

  45. 45.

    Lee, R. M., & Robbins, S. B. (1998). The relationship between social connectedness and anxiety, self-esteem, and social identity. Journal of Counseling Psychology,45(3), 338–345.

  46. 46.

    Brown, K. M., Hoye, R., & Nicholson, M. (2012). Self-esteem, self-efficacy, and social connectedness as mediators of the relationship between volunteering and well-being. Journal of Social Service Research,38(4), 468–483. https://doi.org/10.1080/01488376.2012.687706.

  47. 47.

    Lee, R. M., Keough, K. A., & Sexton, J. D. (2002). Social connectedness, social appraisal, and perceived stress in college women and men. Journal of Counseling and Development,80(3), 355–361. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6678.2002.tb00200.x.

  48. 48.

    Giangrasso, B., & Casale, S. (2014). Psychometric properties of the Medical Outcome Study Social Support Survey with a general population sample of undergraduate students. Social Indicators Research,116(1), 185–197. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-013-0277-z.

  49. 49.

    Schutte, N. S., Malouff, J. M., Hall, L. E., Haggerty, D. J., Cooper, J. T., Golden, C. J., et al. (1998). Development and validation of a measure of emotional intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences,25(2), 167–177. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869(98)00001-4.

  50. 50.

    Sánchez-Álvarez, N., Extremera, N., & Fernández-Berrocal, P. (2016). The relation between emotional intelligence and subjective well-being: A meta-analytic investigation. Journal of Positive Psychology,11(3), 276–285. https://doi.org/10.1080/17439760.2015.1058968.

  51. 51.

    Baron-Cohen, S., Bowen, D. C., Holt, R. J., Allison, C., Auyeung, B., Lombardo, M. V., et al. (2015). The “Reading the Mind in the Eyes” Test: Complete absence of typical sex difference in 400 men and women with autism. PLoS ONE,10(8), 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0136521.

  52. 52.

    Bora, E., Yucel, M., & Pantelis, C. (2009). Theory of mind impairment in schizophrenia: Meta-analysis. Schizophrenia Research,109(1–3), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2008.12.020.

  53. 53.

    Oakley, B. F. M., Brewer, R., Bird, G., & Catmur, C. (2016). Theory of mind is not theory of emotion: A cautionary note on the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test. Journal of Abnormal Psychology,125(April), 1–25. https://doi.org/10.1037/abn0000182.

  54. 54.

    Miller, R. S., & Lefcourt, H. M. (1982). The assessment of social Intimacy. Journal of Personality Assessment,46(5), 514–518. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327752jpa4605_12.

  55. 55.

    Anderson, T. L., & Emmers-Sommer, T. M. (2006). Predictors of relationship satisfaction in online romantic relationships. Communication Studies,57(2), 153–172. https://doi.org/10.1080/10510970600666834.

  56. 56.

    Miller, R. S., & Lefcourt, H. M. (1983). Social intimacy: An important moderator of stressful life events. American Journal of Community Psychology,11(2), 127–139. https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00894362.

  57. 57.

    Leonard, R. C., Knott, L. E., Lee, E. B., Singh, S., Smith, A. H., Kanter, J., et al. (2014). The development of the Functional Analytic Psychotherapy Intimacy Scale. Psychological Record,64(4), 647–657. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40732-014-0089-9.

  58. 58.

    Kanter, J. W., Kuczynski, A. M., Tsai, M., & Kohlenberg, R. J. (2018). A brief contextual behavioral intervention to improve relationships: A randomized trial. Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcbs.2018.09.001.

  59. 59.

    Davis, M. H. (1980). A multidimensional approach to individual differences in empathy. JSAS Catalog of Selected Documents in Psychology,10, 85.

  60. 60.

    Shanafelt, T. D., West, C., Zhao, X., Novotny, P., Kolars, J., Habermann, T., et al. (2005). Relationship between increased personal well-being and enhanced empathy among internal medicine residents. Journal of General Internal Medicine,20(7), 559–564. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-005-0102-8.

  61. 61.

    Péloquin, K., & Lafontaine, M. F. (2010). Measuring empathy in couples: Validity and reliability of the interpersonal reactivity index for couples. Journal of Personality Assessment,92(2), 146–157. https://doi.org/10.1080/00223890903510399.

  62. 62.

    Glenn, A. L., Iyer, R., Graham, J., Koleva, S., & Haidt, J. (2009). Are all types of morality compromised in psychopathy? Journal of Personality Disorders,23(4), 384–398. https://doi.org/10.1521/pedi.2009.23.4.384.

  63. 63.

    Corcoran, K. O., & Mallinckrodt, B. (2000). Adult attachment, self-efficacy, perspective taking, and conflict resoution. Journal of Counseling & Development,78(4), 473–483. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6676.2000.tb01931.x.

  64. 64.

    Blatt, B., Lelacheur, S. F., Galinsky, A. D., Simmens, S. J., & Greenberg, L. (2010). Does perspective-taking increase patient satisfaction in medical encounters? Academic Medicine,85(9), 1445–1452. https://doi.org/10.1097/ACM.0b013e3181eae5ec.

  65. 65.

    R Core Team. (2018). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing. Retrieved December 10, 2018 from https://www.r-project.org

  66. 66.

    Šidák, Z. (1967). Rectangular confidence regions for the means of multivariate normal distributions. Journal of the American Statistical Association,62(318), 626–633. https://doi.org/10.1080/01621459.1967.10482935.

  67. 67.

    Rosseel, Y. (2012). lavaan: An R package for structural equation modeling. Journal of Statistical Software,48(2), 1–36. https://doi.org/10.18637/jss.v048.i02.

  68. 68.

    Epskamp, S., Waldorp, L. J., Mõttus, R., & Borsboom, D. (2018). The Gaussian Graphical Model in cross-sectional and time-series data. Multivariate Behavioral Research,53, 1–28. https://doi.org/10.1080/00273171.2018.1454823.

  69. 69.

    Friedman, J., Hastie, T., & Tibshirani, R. (2008). Sparse inverse covariance estimation with the graphical lasso. Biostatistics,9(3), 432–441. https://doi.org/10.1093/biostatistics/kxm045.

  70. 70.

    Tibshirani, R. (1996). Regression shrinkage and selection via the lasso. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society,1, 267–288.

  71. 71.

    Epskamp, S., Cramer, A. O. J., Waldorp, L. J., Schmittmann, V. D., & Borsboom, D. (2012). qgraph: Network visualizations of relationships in psychometric data. Journal of Statistical Software,48(4), 1–18. https://doi.org/10.18637/jss.v048.i04.

  72. 72.

    Chen, J., & Chen, Z. (2008). Extended Bayesian information criteria for model selection with large model spaces. Biometrika,95(3), 759–771. https://doi.org/10.1093/biomet/asn034.

  73. 73.

    Opsahl, T., Agneessens, F., & Skvoretz, J. (2010). Node centrality in weighted networks: Generalizing degree and shortest paths. Social Networks,32(3), 245–251. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socnet.2010.03.006.

  74. 74.

    Epskamp, S., Borsboom, D., & Fried, E. I. (2018). Estimating psychological networks and their accuracy: A tutorial paper. Behavior Research Methods,50, 195–212. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13428-017-0862-1.

  75. 75.

    Dijkstra, E. W. (1959). A note on two problems in connexion with graphs. Numerische Mathematik,1, 269–271. https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01386390.

  76. 76.

    Isvoranu, A. M., Van Borkulo, C. D., Boyette, L. Lou, Wigman, J. T. W., Vinkers, C. H., Borsboom, D., et al. (2017). A network approach to psychosis: Pathways between childhood trauma and psychotic symptoms. Schizophrenia Bulletin,43(1), 187–196. https://doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sbw055.

  77. 77.

    Cacioppo, J. T., Hawkley, L., & Thisted, R. (2010). Perceived social isolation makes me aad: Five year cross-lagged analyses of loneliness and depressive symptomatology in the Chicago Health, Aging, and Social Relations Study. Psychology and Aging,25(2), 453–463. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0017216.Perceived.

  78. 78.

    Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2004). SPSS and SAS procedures for estimating indirect effects in simple mediation models. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers,36(4), 717–731. https://doi.org/10.3758/bf03206553.

  79. 79.

    Berry, R. E., & Williams, F. L. (1987). Assessing the relationship between quality of life and marital and income satisfaction: A path analytic approach. Journal of Marriage and the Family,49(1), 107–116. https://doi.org/10.2307/352675.

  80. 80.

    Elwert, F., & Winship, C. (2014). Endogenous selection bias: The problem of conditioning on a collider variable. Annual Review of Sociology,40(1), 31–53. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-soc-071913-043455.

  81. 81.

    Batson, C. D., Sympson, S. C., Hindman, J. L., Decruz, P., Todd, R. M., Weeks, J. L., et al. (1996). “I’ve been there, too”: Effect on empathy of prior experience with a need. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin,22(5), 474–482. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167296225005.

  82. 82.

    Ruttan, R. L., McDonnell, M. H., & Nordgren, L. F. (2015). Having “been there” doesn’t mean I care: When prior experience reduces compassion for emotional distress. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,108(4), 610–622. https://doi.org/10.1037/pspi0000012.

  83. 83.

    Cacioppo, J. T., & Hawkley, L. C. (2010). Perceived social isolation and cognition. Trends in Cognitive Sciences,13(10), 447–454. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2009.06.005.

  84. 84.

    Maitland, D. W. M., Petts, R. A., Knott, L. E., Briggs, C. A., Moore, J. A., & Gaynor, S. T. (2016). A randomized controlled trial of Functional Analytic Psychotherapy versus watchful waiting: Enhancing social connectedness and reducing anxiety and avoidance. Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice,16(3), 103–122. https://doi.org/10.1037/bar0000051.

  85. 85.

    Terluin, B., De Boer, M. R., & De Vet, H. C. W. (2016). Differences in connection strength between mental symptoms might be explained by differences in variance: Reanalysis of network data did not confirm staging. PLoS ONE,11(11), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0155205.

  86. 86.

    Cacioppo, J. T., & Cacioppo, S. (2014). Social relationships and health: The toxic effects of perceived social isolation. Social and Personality Psychology Compass,8(2), 58–72. https://doi.org/10.1111/spc3.12087.

  87. 87.

    Cacioppo, J. T., Fowler, J. H., & Christakis, N. A. (2009). Alone in the crowd: The structure and spread of loneliness in a large social network. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,97(6), 977–991. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0016076.

  88. 88.

    van de Mortel, T. F. (2008). Faking it: Social desirability response bias in self- report research. Australian Journal of Advanced Nursing,25(4), 40–48.

  89. 89.

    Peplau, L. A., & Perlman, D. (1979). Blueprint for a social psychological theory of loneliness. In M. Cook & G. Wilson (Eds.), Love and attraction (pp. 101–110). England: Oxford.

  90. 90.

    Nunnally, J. C., & Bernstein, I. H. (1994). Psychometric theory (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

  91. 91.

    Streiner, D. (2003). Starting at the beginning: An introduction to Coefficient Alpha and internal consistency. Journal of Personality Assessment,80(1), 99–103. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327752jpa8001_18.

  92. 92.

    Voracek, M., & Dressler, S. G. (2006). Lack of correlation between digit ratio (2D:4D) and Baron-Cohen’s “Reading the Mind in the Eyes” test, empathy, systemising, and autism-spectrum quotients in a general population sample. Personality and Individual Differences,41(8), 1481–1491. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2006.06.009.

  93. 93.

    Cook, D. A., & Beckman, T. J. (2006). Current concepts in validity and reliability for psychometric instruments: Theory and application. American Journal of Medicine,119(2), 166.e7–166.e16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2005.10.036.

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Adam M. Kuczynski.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee (University of Washington Human Subjects Division—#47191) and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary material 1 (PDF 212 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Kuczynski, A.M., Kanter, J.W. & Robinaugh, D.J. Differential associations between interpersonal variables and quality-of-life in a sample of college students. Qual Life Res 29, 127–139 (2020) doi:10.1007/s11136-019-02298-3

Download citation

Keywords

  • Interpersonal processes
  • Loneliness
  • Social isolation
  • Quality-of-life
  • Network analysis