Quality of Life Research

, Volume 28, Issue 1, pp 267–275 | Cite as

Confirmatory factor analysis of the Minnesota living with heart failure questionnaire among patients following open heart surgery for valve dysfunction

  • Scott D. BarnettEmail author
  • Eric L. Sarin
  • Linda Henry
  • Linda Halpin
  • Grace Pritchard
  • Alan M. Speir



The Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLHFQ) was designed to assess the impact of the adverse effects of heart failure (HF). Numerous reports suggest an additional third factor with the proposed third factor representing a social dimension. The purpose of this study was to use confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to validate the factor structure of the MLWHFQ, and examine a proposed third factor structure.


Participants were 1290 individuals with open heart surgery for isolated valve repair or replacement between September 2005 and May 2016. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess both initial and proposed alternate factor structures.


CFA indicated a poor fit for the original proposed 2-factor solution [root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.116], whereas separate proposed 3-factor solutions with varying item scoring fit marginally well (RMSEA = 0.080, 0.089). The CFA suggests the existence of a third dimension, social, beyond the established original two-factor solution. Results suggest in a direct comparison of proposed social dimensions, both Garin’s four item solution and Munyombwe’s six-item solution provide similar results.


Results suggest support for an additional third factor among patients undergoing isolated valve replacement surgery. We suggest given the inclusion of items important to our population, relatively strong fit indices, and correlation with the SF-12, the social dimension proposed by Munyombwe best fits our population.


Heart failure Health-related quality of life Confirmatory factor analysis Heart valve procedures Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire 



No funding was received for this study.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

We have no financial or non-financial conflicts of interest to report.

Ethics approval and consent to participate

This survey was approved by the Inova Health System local Institutional Review Board.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Scott D. Barnett
    • 1
    Email author
  • Eric L. Sarin
    • 1
  • Linda Henry
    • 1
  • Linda Halpin
    • 1
  • Grace Pritchard
    • 1
  • Alan M. Speir
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Cardiac Surgery ResearchInova Heart and Vascular InstituteFalls ChurchUSA

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