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Quality of Life Research

, Volume 28, Issue 2, pp 535–543 | Cite as

Test–retest reliability and validity of a single-item Self-reported Family Happiness Scale in Hong Kong Chinese: findings from Hong Kong Jockey Club FAMILY Project

  • Chen Shen
  • Man Ping WangEmail author
  • Henry C. Y. Ho
  • Alice Wan
  • Sunita M. Stewart
  • Kasisomayajula Viswanath
  • Sophia Siu Chee Chan
  • Tai Hing Lam
Article

Abstract

Purpose

Family happiness is one major theme of family well-being in Chinese culture. We investigated the reliability and validity of the single-item Self-reported Family Happiness Scale (SFHS-1) with the score of 0–10, based on two studies in Hong Kong Chinese.

Methods

Study 1 was a territory-wide population-based telephone survey (n = 4038) conducted in 2016. Study 2 was a community-based family intervention program conducted during 2012–2013 (n = 1261) to enhance family communication and well-being. Test–retest reliability of the SFHS-1 was assessed over 1 month in Study 2. Family APGAR (Adaption, Partnership, Growth, Affection, Resolve) Scale, Family Communication Scale, Subjective Happiness Scale, 12-item Short Form Health Survey Version 2, and 2-item Patient Health Questionnaire were used to assess the convergent and discriminant validities of the SFHS-1 in both studies. Multiple regression analysis was used to assess the incremental validity by identifying the additional contribution of the SFHS-1 score in predicting subjective happiness.

Results

The 1-month test–retest reliability assessed by intraclass correlation was 0.76. Family happiness was moderately to strongly correlated with family function, family communication, subjective happiness, mental health-related quality of life and depression, but weakly correlated with physical health-related quality of life. Furthermore, the score of the SFHS-1 added predictive power to mental health-related quality of life and depression in assessing subjective happiness.

Conclusions

Our results have shown the SFHS-1 as a reliable and valid measurement of family happiness in Hong Kong Chinese, suggesting SFHS-1 is highly practicable for future large epidemiological and community-based intervention studies.

Keywords

Family happiness Single-item scale Reliability Validity Quality of life 

Abbreviations

APGAR

Adaption, Partnership, Growth, Affection, Resolve

FCS

Family Communication Scale

FHInTS

Family and Health Information Trends Survey

HRQoL

Health-related Quality of Life

MCS

Mental Component Subscale

PCS

Physical Component Subscale

PHQ-2

2-Item Patient Health Questionnaire

SF-12

12-Item Short Form Health Survey

SFHS-1

Self-reported Family Happiness Scale

SHS

Subjective Happiness Scale

Notes

Acknowledgements

The project was funded by the Hong Kong Jockey Club Charities Trust. The authors wish to thank the participants who participated in the telephone surveys and the Public Opinion Programme (HKU) officials for conducting the surveys.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

None of the authors have any potential competing interests to declare.

Ethical approval

Ethical approval was granted by the Institutional Review Board of the University of Hong Kong/Hospital Authority Hong Kong West Cluster.

Informed consent

For Study 1, verbal informed consents were obtained from the respondents. For Study 2, written consent was obtained from each participant prior to participation in the programs. For children enrolled in the study, written consent was obtained from their next of kin, caretakers, or guardians on their behalf.

Supplementary material

11136_2018_2019_MOESM1_ESM.docx (20 kb)
Appendix Table (DOCX 19 KB)

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chen Shen
    • 1
    • 2
  • Man Ping Wang
    • 3
    Email author
  • Henry C. Y. Ho
    • 4
  • Alice Wan
    • 2
  • Sunita M. Stewart
    • 5
  • Kasisomayajula Viswanath
    • 6
    • 7
  • Sophia Siu Chee Chan
    • 3
  • Tai Hing Lam
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public HealthImperial College LondonLondonUK
  2. 2.School of Public HealthThe University of Hong KongHong KongChina
  3. 3.School of NursingThe University of Hong KongHong Kong SARChina
  4. 4.Department of PsychologyThe Education University of Hong KongHong KongChina
  5. 5.Department of PsychiatryThe University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at DallasDallasUSA
  6. 6.Center for Community-Based ResearchDana-Farber Cancer InstituteBostonUSA
  7. 7.Department of Social and Behavioural SciencesHarvard TH Chan School of Public HealthCambridgeUSA

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