Quality of Life Research

, Volume 25, Issue 12, pp 3209–3219

Deriving population norms for the AQoL-6D and AQoL-8D multi-attribute utility instruments from web-based data

  • Aimee Maxwell
  • Mehmet Özmen
  • Angelo Iezzi
  • Jeff Richardson

DOI: 10.1007/s11136-016-1337-z

Cite this article as:
Maxwell, A., Özmen, M., Iezzi, A. et al. Qual Life Res (2016) 25: 3209. doi:10.1007/s11136-016-1337-z



(i) to demonstrate a method which ameliorates the problem of self-selection in the estimation of population norms from web-based data and (ii) to use the method to calculate population norms for two multi-attribute utility (MAU) instruments, the AQoL-6D and AQoL-8D, and population norms for the sub-scales from which they are constructed.


A web-based survey administered the AQoL-8D MAU instrument (which subsumes the AQoL-6D questionnaire), to members of the public along with the AQoL-4D which has extant population norms. Age, gender and the AQoL-4D were used as post-stratification auxiliary variables to construct weights to ameliorate the potential effects of self-selection associated with web-based surveys. The weights were used to estimate unbiased population norms. Standard errors from the weighted samples were calculated using Jackknife estimation.


For both AQoL-6D and AQoL-8D, physical health dimensions decline significantly with age. In contrast, for the majority of the psycho-social dimensions there is a significant U-shaped profile. The net effect is a shallow U-shaped relationship between age and both the AQoL-6D and AQoL-8D utilities. This contrasts with the almost monotonic decline in the utilities derived from the AQoL-4D and SF-6D MAU instruments.


Post-stratification weights were used to ameliorate potential bias in the derivation of norms from web-based data for the AQoL-6D and AQoL-8D. The methods may be used generally to obtain norms when suitable auxiliary variables are available. The inclusion of an enlarged psycho-social component in the two instruments significantly alters the demographic profile.


CUA Norms AQoL QoL Multi-attribute utility 

Supplementary material

11136_2016_1337_MOESM1_ESM.docx (36 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 37 kb)

Funding information

Funder NameGrant NumberFunding Note
National Health and Medical Research Council
  • 1006334

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aimee Maxwell
    • 1
  • Mehmet Özmen
    • 2
  • Angelo Iezzi
    • 1
  • Jeff Richardson
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for Health Economics, Monash Business SchoolMonash UniversityMelbourneAustralia
  2. 2.Department of Econometrics and Business Statistics, Monash Business SchoolMonash UniversityMelbourneAustralia

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