The European Portuguese WHOQOL-OLD module and the new facet Family/Family life: reliability and validity studies
The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the European Portuguese version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Older Adults Module (WHOQOL-OLD). The European Portuguese WHOQOL-OLD includes a new identified facet, Family/Family life.
A convenience sample of older adults was recruited (N = 921). The assessment protocol included demographics, self-perceived health, depressive symptoms (GDS-30), cognitive function (ACE-R), daily life activities (IAFAI), health status (SF-12) and QoL (WHOQOL-Bref, EUROHIS-QOL-8 and WHOQOL-OLD).
The internal consistency was excellent for the total 24-item WHOQOL-OLD original version and also for the final 28-item European Portuguese WHOQOL-OLD version. The test–retest reliability for total scores was good. The construct validity of the European Portuguese WHOQOL-OLD was supported in the correlation matrix analysis. The results indicated good convergent/divergent validity. The WHOQOL-OLD scores differentiated groups of older adults who were healthy/unhealthy and without/mild/severe depressive symptoms. The new facet, Family/Family life, presented evidence of good reliability and validity parameters.
Comparatively to international studies, the European Portuguese WHOQOL-OLD version showed similar and/or better psychometric properties. The new facet, Family/Family life, introduces cross-cultural specificity to the study of QoL of older adults and generally improves the psychometric robustness of the WHOQOL-OLD.
KeywordsWHOQOL-OLD Psychometric properties Quality of life Family/Family life facet
The study is part of the research project “Validation of Memory Tests and Functional Capacity and Quality of Life Inventories,” a Portuguese project developed at the Faculty of Psychology, University of Coimbra, Portugal, and founded by the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation (Process 74569; SDH 22 Neurosciences). We would like to thank all of the individuals who participated in the study and all of the Portuguese project team members and collaborators who applied the assessment protocol.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
Author Manuela Vilar declares that she has no conflict of interest; author Liliana B. Sousa declares that she has no conflict of interest; and author Mário R. Simões declares that he has no conflict of interest.
Informed consent was obtained from all individuals participants included in the study. The purpose of the current study and the voluntary nature of participation were explained to the older persons.
- 1.World Health Organization. (2011). Aging and life course. Geneve: WHO.Google Scholar
- 2.Population Reference Bureau. (2010). 2010 World population data sheet. Retrieved from http://www.prb.org/pdf10/10wpds_fr.pdf.
- 12.Liu, R., Wu, S., Hao, Y., Gu, J., Fang, J., Cai, N., & Zhang, J. (2013). The Chinese version of the world health organization quality of life instrument-older adults module (WHOQOL-OLD): Psychometric evaluation. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 11, 156. Retrieved from http://www.hqlo.com/content/11/1/156.
- 13.Conrad, I., Matschinger, H., Riedel-Heller, S., von Gottberg, C., & Kilian, R. (2014). The psychometric properties of the German version of the WHOQOL-OLD in the German population aged 60 and older. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 12, 105. Retrieved from http://www.hqlo.com/content/12/1/105.
- 14.Vilar, M., Simões, M. R., Lima, M. P., Cruz, C., Sousa, L. B., Sousa, A. R., & Pires, L. (2014). Adaptação e validação do WHOQOL-OLD para a população portuguesa: Resultados da implementação de grupos focais [Adaptation and validation of the WHOQOL-OLD for the European Portuguese population: Focus groups results]. Revista Iberoamericana de Diagnóstico e Avaliação Psicológica, 37, 71–95.Google Scholar
- 15.Vilar, M., Sousa, L. B., & Simões, M. R. (2015). World Health Organization quality of life-OLD module (WHOQOL-OLD). In M. R. Simões, I. Santana, & Grupo de Estudos de Envelhecimento Cerebral e Demência (GEECD) (Eds.), Escalas e Testes na demência [Scales and tests in dementia] (3rd ed., pp. 194–199). Novartis: Lisboa.Google Scholar
- 16.Vaz Serra, A., Canavarro, M. C., Simões, M. R., Pereira, M., Gameiro, S., Quartilho, M. J., et al. (2006). Estudos psicométricos do Instrumento de Avaliação da Qualidade de Vida da Organização Mundial de Saúde (WHOQOL-Bref) para Português de Portugal [Psycometric studies of the European Portuguese WHOQOL-BREF version]. Psiquiatria Clínica, 27(1), 41–49.Google Scholar
- 17.Pereira, M., Melo, C., Gameiro, S., & Canavarro, M. C. (2011). Estudos psicométricos da versão em Português Europeu do índice de qualidade de vida EUROHIS-QOL-8 [Psychometric studies of the European Portuguese version of the EUROHIS-QOL-8 quality of life índex]. Laboratório de Psicologia, 9(2), 109–123.Google Scholar
- 18.Ribeiro, J. L. P. (2005). O importante é a saúde. Estudo de adaptação de uma técnica de avaliação do estado de saúde—SF-36 [The important thing is health. Study adaptation of a technique for measuring health status—SF-36]. Porto: Fundação Merck Sharp & Dohme.Google Scholar
- 19.Firmino, H., Simões, M. R., Pinho, S., Cerejeira, J., & Martins, C. (2008). Avaliação Cognitiva de Addenbrooke-Revista: Versão Portuguesa [Addenbrooke´s cognitive examination-revised: Portuguese version]. Coimbra: Psychological Assessment Department, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University of Coimbra.Google Scholar
- 20.Barreto, J., Leuschner, A., Santos, F., & Sobral, M. (2008). Escala de Depressão Geriátrica [Geriatric Depression Scale]. In A. Mendonça & M. Guerreiro (Eds.), Escalas e Testes na Demência [Scales and tests in dementia] (2nd ed., pp. 65–66). Lisboa: Grupo de Estudos de Envelhecimento Cerebral e Demência/Novartis.Google Scholar
- 23.Wada, T., Ishine, M., Sakagami, T., Kita, T., Okumiya, K., Mizuno, K., et al. (2005). Depression, activities of daily living, and quality of life of community-dwelling elderly in three Asian countries: Indonesia, Vietnam, and Japan. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 41, 271–280.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar