The European Portuguese WHOQOL-OLD module and the new facet Family/Family life: reliability and validity studies
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The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the European Portuguese version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Older Adults Module (WHOQOL-OLD). The European Portuguese WHOQOL-OLD includes a new identified facet, Family/Family life.
A convenience sample of older adults was recruited (N = 921). The assessment protocol included demographics, self-perceived health, depressive symptoms (GDS-30), cognitive function (ACE-R), daily life activities (IAFAI), health status (SF-12) and QoL (WHOQOL-Bref, EUROHIS-QOL-8 and WHOQOL-OLD).
The internal consistency was excellent for the total 24-item WHOQOL-OLD original version and also for the final 28-item European Portuguese WHOQOL-OLD version. The test–retest reliability for total scores was good. The construct validity of the European Portuguese WHOQOL-OLD was supported in the correlation matrix analysis. The results indicated good convergent/divergent validity. The WHOQOL-OLD scores differentiated groups of older adults who were healthy/unhealthy and without/mild/severe depressive symptoms. The new facet, Family/Family life, presented evidence of good reliability and validity parameters.
Comparatively to international studies, the European Portuguese WHOQOL-OLD version showed similar and/or better psychometric properties. The new facet, Family/Family life, introduces cross-cultural specificity to the study of QoL of older adults and generally improves the psychometric robustness of the WHOQOL-OLD.
KeywordsWHOQOL-OLD Psychometric properties Quality of life Family/Family life facet
The study is part of the research project “Validation of Memory Tests and Functional Capacity and Quality of Life Inventories,” a Portuguese project developed at the Faculty of Psychology, University of Coimbra, Portugal, and founded by the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation (Process 74569; SDH 22 Neurosciences). We would like to thank all of the individuals who participated in the study and all of the Portuguese project team members and collaborators who applied the assessment protocol.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
Author Manuela Vilar declares that she has no conflict of interest; author Liliana B. Sousa declares that she has no conflict of interest; and author Mário R. Simões declares that he has no conflict of interest.
Informed consent was obtained from all individuals participants included in the study. The purpose of the current study and the voluntary nature of participation were explained to the older persons.
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