Anxiety and depression analyses of patients undergoing diagnostic cystoscopy
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To prospectively assess anxiety and depression in patients undergoing diagnostic cystoscopy.
Patients presenting for outpatient diagnostic cystoscopy were recruited from four European urological departments. Anxiety and depression were assessed with the ‘Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale’ (HADS) before cystoscopy and after 1 week. Statistical analyses, including the Chi-square test, univariate, and multivariate logistic regression analyses, were carried out with SPSS v. 21 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY).
Prior to cystoscopy, 30.2 % of patients were anxious and 24.8 % depressive (n = 442). In the post-examination period, anxiety declined to 24.5 %, while depression was unchanged (24.4 %). Pre-cystoscopy anxiety was significantly more common in women (41.8 vs. 24.5 %, p < 0.0001), patients aged <65 years (34.9 vs. 25.9 %, p = 0.04), and in those being examined with rigid cystoscopes (35.7 vs. 23.9 %, p = 0.007). In multivariate regression analyses, female gender (OR 2.6, p < 0.0001), <65 years of age (OR 1.7, p = 0.03), and coexistence of depression (OR 7.8, p < 0.0001) were independently associated with elevated pre-cystoscopy anxiety. Anxious (OR 2.1, p = 0.03) and depressive (OR 2.1, p = 0.01) patients had higher odds of experiencing moderate or severe pain during cystoscopy. Bladder cancer diagnosis did not significantly change patient’s anxiety (p = 0.23) or depression (p = 0.7) during the 1 week of follow-up.
Women, patients aged <65 years, depressive patients and those being examined with rigid devices had higher rates of anxiety prior to cystoscopy. Anxious and depressive patients experienced more pain during cystoscopy. Bladder cancer diagnosis seems to have a minor effect on anxiety and depression during the first week after diagnosis.
KeywordsCystoscopy Anxiety Depression Diagnostic techniques, urological Pain
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
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