Screening commercial drivers for obstructive sleep apnea: translation and validation of Serbian version of Berlin Questionnaire
- 257 Downloads
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can lead to severe health consequences. Drivers of motor vehicles with untreated or undiagnosed OSA have a greater risk of traffic accidents. Use of self-reported questionnaires is the first step in OSA diagnosis. The main aim of this study was to perform the translation and validation of Berlin Questionnaire in a sample of commercial drivers.
After formal translation, validation was performed on a sample of commercial drivers and included evaluation of internal consistency, test–retest reliability, construct and criterion validity. Full-night attended polysomnography or cardiorespiratory polygraphy was used for OSA diagnosis.
One hundred male participants, 24–62 years old, were included. Berlin Questionnaire classified 35 % subjects as potential OSA patients. Polysomnography confirmed OSA in 58 % of the subjects. Berlin Questionnaire showed good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha 0.82—first category, 0.73–0.95—second category). Test–retest reliability (Cohen’s kappa 0.78) was adequate. Berlin score was significantly correlated with OSA category and apnea–hypopnea index (AHI). Sensitivity of Berlin Questionnaire was from 50.9 (AHI ≥ 5) to 75 % (AHI ≥ 30), while specificity ranged from 86 to 70.5 %.
Berlin Questionnaire (Serbian version) showed good measurement properties, creating basis for further research of its usefulness as OSA screening tool in populations of interest.
KeywordsSleep apnea Obstructive Validation studies Questionnaires
This work was supported by Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of Serbia through the project ON 175081 (2011-2014).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that there are no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper.
This study received ethical approval from the Ethical board of Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Serbia. The study was performed according to ethical standards of the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- 6.Balk, E.M., Moorthy, D., Obadan, N.O., Patel, K., Ip, S., Chung, M., Bannuru, R.R., Kitsios, G.D., Sen, S., Iovin, R.C., Gaylor, J.M., D’Ambrosio, C., & Lau, J. (2011). Diagnosis and treatment of obstructive sleep apnea in adults. Comparative effectiveness Review No. 32. (Prepared by Tufts Evidence-based Practice Center under Contract No. 290-2007-10055-1). AHRQ Publication No. 11-EHC052-EF. Rockville, MD: Agency for healthcare research and quality. http://www.effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov/ehc/products/117/683/CER32_SleepApnea_FinalReview_201108.pdf Accessed 13 July 2015.
- 7.Moreno, C. R. C., Carvalho, F. A., Lorenzi, C., Matuzaki, L. S., Prezotti, S., Bighetti, P., et al. (2004). High risk for obstructive sleep apnea in truck drivers estimated by the Berlin questionnaire: Prevalence and associated factors. Chronobiology International, 21, 871–879.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 14.Chung, F., Yegneswaran, B., Liao, P., Chung, S. A., Vairavanathan, S., Islam, S., et al. (2008). Validation of the Berlin questionnaire and American Society of Anesthesiologists checklist as screening tools for obstructive sleep apnea in surgical patients. Anesthesiology, 108(5), 822–830.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 19.Iber, C., Ancoli-Israel, S., Chesson, A., Quan, S. F., & American Academy of Sleep Medicine. (2007). The AASM manual for the scoring of sleep and associated events: Rules, terminology and technical specifications. Westchester: American Academy of Sleep Medicine.Google Scholar
- 20.Collop, N. A., Anderson, W. M., Boehlecke, B., Claman, D., Goldberg, R., Gottlieb, D. J., et al. (2007). Clinical guidelines for the use of unattended portable monitors in the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea in adult patients. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 3(7), 737–747.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- 21.Yunus, A., Seet, W., & Haniff, J. (2012). Validation of the Malay version of Berlin questionnaire to identify Malaysian patients for obstructive sleep apnea. Malaysian Family Physician, 8(1), 5–11.Google Scholar