Quality of Life Research

, Volume 25, Issue 2, pp 343–349 | Cite as

Screening commercial drivers for obstructive sleep apnea: translation and validation of Serbian version of Berlin Questionnaire

  • Martin B. PopevićEmail author
  • Anđela Milovanović
  • Ljudmila Nagorni-Obradović
  • Dejan Nešić
  • Jovica Milovanović
  • Aleksandar P. S. Milovanović
Brief Communication



Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can lead to severe health consequences. Drivers of motor vehicles with untreated or undiagnosed OSA have a greater risk of traffic accidents. Use of self-reported questionnaires is the first step in OSA diagnosis. The main aim of this study was to perform the translation and validation of Berlin Questionnaire in a sample of commercial drivers.


After formal translation, validation was performed on a sample of commercial drivers and included evaluation of internal consistency, test–retest reliability, construct and criterion validity. Full-night attended polysomnography or cardiorespiratory polygraphy was used for OSA diagnosis.


One hundred male participants, 24–62 years old, were included. Berlin Questionnaire classified 35 % subjects as potential OSA patients. Polysomnography confirmed OSA in 58 % of the subjects. Berlin Questionnaire showed good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha 0.82—first category, 0.73–0.95—second category). Test–retest reliability (Cohen’s kappa 0.78) was adequate. Berlin score was significantly correlated with OSA category and apnea–hypopnea index (AHI). Sensitivity of Berlin Questionnaire was from 50.9 (AHI ≥ 5) to 75 % (AHI ≥ 30), while specificity ranged from 86 to 70.5 %.


Berlin Questionnaire (Serbian version) showed good measurement properties, creating basis for further research of its usefulness as OSA screening tool in populations of interest.


Sleep apnea Obstructive Validation studies Questionnaires 



This work was supported by Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of Serbia through the project ON 175081 (2011-2014).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there are no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper.

Ethical statements

This study received ethical approval from the Ethical board of Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Serbia. The study was performed according to ethical standards of the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Martin B. Popević
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Anđela Milovanović
    • 1
    • 3
  • Ljudmila Nagorni-Obradović
    • 1
    • 4
  • Dejan Nešić
    • 5
  • Jovica Milovanović
    • 1
    • 6
  • Aleksandar P. S. Milovanović
    • 1
    • 7
  1. 1.Faculty of MedicineUniversity of BelgradeBelgradeSerbia
  2. 2.Department for Occupational Physiology and HygieneSerbian Institute of Occupational HealthBelgradeSerbia
  3. 3.Clinic for Physical Medicine and RehabilitationClinical Centre of SerbiaBelgradeSerbia
  4. 4.Clinic for PulmonologyClinical Centre of SerbiaBelgradeSerbia
  5. 5.Institute of Medical Physiology, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of BelgradeBelgradeSerbia
  6. 6.Clinic for Otorhinolaryngology and Maxillofacial SurgeryClinical Centre of SerbiaBelgradeSerbia
  7. 7.Department for Diagnostics and Treatment of Occupational and Work Related DiseasesSerbian Institute of Occupational HealthBelgradeSerbia

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